ISLAM MADE EASY

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Islam Made Easy
Islam Made Easy (CLICK HERE)  (.PDF FILE)

Abu Zakariyah Ali Assaad

First Edition 1434/2013

This book was compiled, edited and checked in Australia.
It is not protected by copyright, any quotation, reproduction
is allowed, as the copyright law is prohibited in Islam.
The author has given full rights to be reproduced, published and distributed all around the world, as our aim is not income;
our aim is spreading Islam and making the word of Allah
the Most High above all others. We reject all man-made law and its systems, we are free from copyright and this is our open declaration of disavowal from everything that is worshipped besides Allah. This product is not for sale unless all the profits are given towards Da’wah or a form of Sadaqah (Charity).

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Islam Made Easy

O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him]. And hold firmly to the rope of Allah all together and do not become divided. And remember the favor of Allah upon you – when you were enemies and He brought your hearts together and you became, by His favor, brothers. And you were on the edge of a pit of the Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus does Allah make clear to you His verses that you may be guided. (‘Ali `Imran: 102-103)

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__________________________________________Contents

Preface 5

Pillars of Islam 6

9 Conditions of Ash-Shahadatayn (Declaration of Faith) 7

The Testimony of LailahaillaAllah consists of Two Pillars 13

The First Pillar of Tawheed: Negation (Nafy) 14

The Second Pillar of Tawheed: Affirmation (Ithbaat) 16

Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah 17

Tawheed al-Asmaa’ was-Sifaat 18

Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah 20

Tawheed al-Hakimiyyah 22

Shirk (Associating Partners) 24

Bid’ah (Innovation) 27

Al Walaa Wal Baraa 28

Articles of Iman (Faith) 30

Obligation of following the Salaf as-Salih 36 Taharah (Purification) 39

Wudoo (Minor Ablution) 40 Purification from Major States of Impurity (Ghusl) 45 Tayammum (Dry Ablution) 49 Prayer (Salaah) 52 Adhan and Iqamah 53 Conditions of the Prayer 55

Description of the Prayer 56 Salaat Times 62 Consequences of Not Praying 63

Fasting 64 Zakaat 67 Zakaat al-Fitr 70 Khilafah 72 Marriage 73 Jinn 74 Du’a 76 Mysteries of the Soul 77 Misconceptions 79 Jihad 79 Voting in Democratic Elections 80 Woman’s Rights in Islam 81 Success is Only through Islam 83 Glossary 84

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____________________________________________Preface

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful. All praises are due to Allah; we praise Him; we seek His help; we seek His forgiveness; and we seek His guidance. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil in our souls and the badness of our deeds. For whomever Allah guides, there is none to lead him astray. And for whomever He allows to go astray, there is none to guide him. I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, for whom there is no partner. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.

Indeed Allah Almighty has protected this religion and raised its status among the nations, sending to the world the final Messenger, Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) and with him the final and most complete religion as Allah Almighty says:

This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. (Al-Ma’idah: 3)

This book has not come with anything new; rather it is compiled information that is essential for Muslims and New Muslims in their day-to-day life. It is also meant to be a reminder for the students of knowledge and callers to the way of Allah on important issues of the Shari’ah and important issues that we face in our current reality.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Convey from me even an Ayah of the Qur’an; (Bukhari)

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This Hadith stresses the importance of acquiring knowledge of the Qur’an and Hadith and imparting

it to others. Regardless of whether one has a little knowledge or a great deal, he or she must

communicate it to others. There is no justification to leave inviting to the Message of Allah to those

who are well-versed in this sphere. It is a duty upon every Muslim to learn something and pass it on.

So much so that if a person knows even a single ayah/verse of the Qur’an, that is, a single injunction

of Allah, they should communicate it to others.

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Whoever Allah wishes good for, He grants him

understanding of the religion”. (Bukhari)

Abu Hurayrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Allah makes the way to Jannah easy for him who treads the path in search of knowledge.” (Muslim).

I pray that Allah accepts this work from me as being solely for His sake. As with all such work, the responsibility for any mistakes lies with the author. I ask Allah to forgive me for my shortcomings and to guide me to the Straight Path.

Peace and blessings be upon our beloved leader Prophet Muhammad, his household and his companions and those that follow in his footsteps and the footsteps of his companions.

Abu Zakariya Ali Assaad

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______________________________________Pillars of Islam

Islam is built on five pillars, these pillars are:
1. Ash-Shahadatayn (Declaration of Faith): bearing witness that there is none worthy of being

worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger.

2. Establishing prayers (Salaah): Muslims perform five prayers a day as a duty towards Allah. Each prayer only takes a few minutes to perform and is a direct link between the worshipper and god. There are no intermediaries between the worshiper and Allah. Prayers strengthen and enliven the belief in Allah and inspire man to a higher morality. They purify the heart and prevent temptation towards wrongdoing and evil.

3. Paying the alms (Zakaah): The literal and simple meaning of Zakaah is purity, wealth is purified by paying Zakaah. As all things belong to Allah, wealth is therefore held by human beings in trust. Zakaah means giving a specified percentage of ones wealth to certain classes of needy people. In addition the individual may give as much as he/she pleases in voluntary charity.

4. Fasting the month of Ramadan (Sawm): Muslims during the month of Ramadan not only abstain from food, drink, and sexual intercourse from dawn to sunset, but also from immoral behaviour. Fasting teaches love, sincerity and devotion. It develops a sound social conscience, patience, unselfishness and will-power.

5. Performing pilgrimage (Hajj): It is to be performed at least once in a lifetime, by those who are physically and financially able to do so. The Ka’bah, which is in the city of Mecca, is the first house of worship appointed for mankind and was built by Ibrahim and his son Ismael (Peace Be Upon Them).The importance and description of Hajj & ‘Umrah, are so in-depth that it will not be explained in this book, many scholars have written many books on the topic, Sheikh Muhammad ibn Saalih al Uthaymeen has written a book “How to Perform the Rituals of Hajj and Umrah”, and this is my recommendation to the reader.

The first of which is a state of faith, the other four are major exercises of faith of which some are daily, some weekly, some monthly, some annually and some are required as a minimum once in a lifetime. These exercises of faith are to serve man’s purpose in life, to fulfil his religious obligations towards His Lord and to attain the Paradise in the Hereafter (by the Will and Mercy of Allah).

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____9 Conditions of Ash-Shahadatayn (Declaration of Faith)

Knowing the meaning and the conditions of the declaration of Ash-Shahadatayn that: “There is no true God except Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”

The phrase that “there is no true God” negates anything or anyone that is being worshipped other than Allah, and the phrase: “except Allah” confirms that all forms of worship, submission and adoration must be for Allah alone, without setting up rivals with Him. The conditions needed to fulfil the meaning of Ash-Shahadatayn are:

  1. Knowledge
  2. Certainty
  3. Acceptance
  4. Submission
  5. Truthfulness
  6. Sincerity
  7. Love
  8. Denial of False Worship
  9. Adherence until Death

Knowledge_______________________________________________

That is, one must have the basic and general knowledge of what is meant by the shahadah. One must understand what the shahadah is affirming and what the shahadah is denying.

Allah says in the Qur’an,

“So know that there is no God save Allah, and ask forgiveness for your sin.”

(Surah Muhammad: 19).

Similarly, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,

“Whoever dies knowing that there is no one worthy of worship except Allah shall enter Paradise.” (Muslim).

In fact, the shahadah itself is a testimony. When one testifies to something, one must know what it is that he is testifying concerns. Obviously, a testimony about something that one does not have any knowledge about is absolutely unacceptable.

Allah says “Except him who bears witness unto the truth knowingly.”(Surah Al-Zukhruf: 86).

All of us must do our best to learn at least the basics of Islamic beliefs, the basics of what shahadah means. In this way, Allah willing, we will be making the correct shahadah. We will be witnessing to the truth as we are supposed to be witnesses to it.

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Certainty________________________________________________

This is the opposite of doubt and uncertainty. In Islam any kind of doubt in the message of Islam is equivalent to Kufr (disbelief). We must, in our hearts, be absolutely certain of the truth of the shahadah. Our hearts must not be wavering in any way when we testify to the truth of, “There is none worthy of worship except Allah.” Allah describes the believers in the Qur’an as those who have belief in Allah and then their hearts waver not. Allah says,

“The (true) believers are those only who believe in Allah and His messenger and afterward doubt not, but strive with their wealth and their lives for the cause of Allah. Such are the sincere.” (Al- Hujjarat: 15).

Similarly, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said,

“No one meets Allah with the testimony that there is none worthy of worship but Allah and I am the Messenger of Allah, and he has no doubt about that statement, except that he will enter Paradise.” (Muslim)

Indeed, Allah describes the hypocrites as those people whose hearts are wavering. For example, Allah says,

“They alone seek leave of thee (not to participate in jihad) who believe not in Allah and the Last Day and whose hearts feel doubt, so in their doubt they waver.”(Al-Tawbah: 45)

Many scholars have stated that the diseases of the heart, or the doubt and suspicions that one allows into one’s heart, are more dangerous for a person’s faith than lusts and desires.

This is because lusts and desires may be satisfied at some time yet the person still knows them to be wrong and he may control himself and repent and give up that evil deed.

On the other hand, the doubts and suspicions may linger in the heart, with no cure, until the person finally leaves Islam entirely or continues to practice Islam while, in fact, in his heart he does not have the true faith.

The greatest cure for these doubts is seeking knowledge. It is through sound knowledge of the Qur’an and the Sunnah that most of these doubts will be removed.

Acceptance_______________________________________________

If a person has knowledge of and certainty in the shahadah, this must be followed by acceptance, with the tongue and heart, of whatever that shahadah implies. Whoever refuses to accept the shahadah and its implications, even if he knows that it is true and certain about its truth; then he is a disbeliever. This refusal to accept is sometimes due to pride, envy or other reasons.

In any case, the shahadah is not a true shahadah without its unconditional acceptance. The scholars all talk about this condition as a general condition in the way that I have just stated. However, there is also a more detailed aspect that we must all be aware of. The believer accepts whatever the implications of the shahadah are. This also means that he believes in whatever is stated in the Qur’an or stated by the Prophet (peace be upon him), without any right to choose what he wants to believe and what he wants to reject.

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Allah says in the Qur’an,

“Do you believe in part of the book and reject part of it? And what is the reward of those who do so, except humiliation in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be sent to the most dreadful doom.” (Al-Baqarah: 85).

There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in Taghout (false deity) and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. (Al-Baqarah: 256)

The Shahadah that is forced is not accepted as it was out of compulsion, and “there shall be no compulsion (acceptance of) the religion.”

Submission_______________________________________________

This implies the actual physical enactment with our deeds of our shahadah. In fact, this is one of the main meanings of the word Islam itself, “the submission to the will and commands of Allah.”

This is what Allah commands in the Qur’an,

“Turn unto Him repentant, and surrender unto Him” (al-Zumar: 54).

Allah has praised those who submit to His command by their actions.
Allah says, “Who is better in religion than he who surrenders his purpose to Allah while doing good”

(al-Nisa: 125).

Actually, Allah has clearly made it a condition of faith that one submits to the command of Allah and His messenger. Allah says,

“But nay, by your Lord, they will not truly believe until they make you [the Messenger of Allah] judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of which you decide, and submit with full submission” (al-Nisa: 65)

Unfortunately, there are many that claim that there is no relationship between faith and deeds. This incorrect understanding of faith has spread throughout the Muslim world.

Indeed, our shahadah or testimony of faith must be implemented or realized in our hearts, tongues and actions. In our hearts, we must have love for Allah, fear of Allah and hope in Him. With our tongues we must testify to the shahadah. And with our actions, we must implement what the testimony of faith requires from us.

Making mistakes and falling short are undoubtedly part of human nature and no one will be free of

shortcomings in his obedience to Allah, or free of mistakes or forgetfulness or sins. All of us fall

short, commit sins, and make mistakes. Sometimes we turn to Allah and sometimes we turn away

from Him. Sometimes we remember that Allah is watching and sometimes we become negligent.

None of us are free of sin, and we will inevitably make mistakes.

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We are not infallible. Hence the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

Truthfulness______________________________________________

This means that when we say the shahadah, we are saying it honestly, we have full conviction in it and it is the truth that is coming from us with no doubts. We are not lying when it comes to our testimony of faith. The Prophet (peace be upon his) said,

“No one bears testimony to there being no one worth of worship save Allah, sincerely from his heart, except that Allah makes the Hell-fire forbidden for him.” (Bukhari & Muslim)

We are all familiar with those who say the testimony of faith yet they are not saying it honestly. They do not believe in it but they are simply saying it in order to protect themselves or to attain some worldly gain from doing so; these are the hypocrites. Allah has described them in the opening of the Qur’an with the following words,

“And of mankind are some who say, ‘We believe in Allah and the Last Day,’ when they believe not. They think to beguile Allah and those who believe, and they beguile none save themselves, but they perceive not. In their hearts is a disease and Allah increases their disease. A painful doom is theirs because they lie” (al-Baqarah: 8-10).

The shahadah of those who become Muslims simply to benefit from being Muslim and not because they believe in Islam will be rejected by Allah in the Hereafter, they will face a painful punishment due to their lying.

Sincerity_________________________________________________

That is, when we make the shahadah, we must do so solely for the sake of Allah. We must not do it for any other reason. And we must not do it for anyone else’s sake. In this manner, the meaning of sincerity is opposite of Shirk or ascribing partners with Allah. We became and remain Muslims solely for Allah’s sake. Allah says in the Qur’an,

“Worship Allah, making religion pure for him” (al-Zumar: 2).

“And they are ordained not else than to serve Allah, keeping religion pure for Him, as men by nature upright and to establish worship and to pay the poor-due. That is true religion”
(al-Bayinah: 5)

And the Prophet (peace be upon him) added, “Allah has forbidden for the Hell-fire anyone who says, ‘There is no one worthy of worship except Allah,’ and say so desiring the face [and pleasure] of Allah.” (Muslim)

We are Muslims solely and only for Allah’s sake, we should always purify out intentions to make them only for His sake.

“By the One in Whose hand is my soul, if you did not commit sin Allah would do away with you and

bring people who would commit sin then pray for forgiveness.” (Muslim)

And he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Every son of Adam sins and the best of

those who sin are those who repent.” (Tirmidhi)

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Love____________________________________________________

That is, the believer loves this shahadah, he loves in accordance with the shahadah, he loves the implications and requirements of the shahadah and he loves those who act and strive for the sake of this shahadah. This is a necessary condition of the shahadah. If a person makes the shahadah but does not love the shahadah and what it stands for, then, in fact, his faith is not complete. It is not the faith of a true believer. And if he loves something more that this shahadah or if he loves something more than Allah, then he has negated his shahadah. The true believer, the one meeting the conditions of the shahadah puts no one whatsoever as an equal to Allah in his love. Allah says in the Qur’an,

“Yet of mankind are some who take unto themselves (objects of worship which they set as) rivals to Allah, loving them with a love like (that which is due to) Allah only. However, those who believe are stauncher in their love of Allah” (al-Baqarah: 165).

“Say: If your fathers, or your sons, or your brethren, or your wives, or your tribe, or the wealth you have acquired, or merchandise for which you fear that there will be no sale, or dwellings you desire are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger and striving in His way: then wait till Allah brings His command to pass. Allah guides not wrongdoing folk” (al-Tawbah: 24).

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said,

“Whoever has three characteristics has tasted the sweetness of faith. [The first of these] is that he loves Allah and His Messenger more than he loves anyone else…” (Bukhari & Muslim)

This shows us that we should only be loving for Allah’s sake, and that it is kufr (disbelief) to love anyone more than we love Allah, and how do we love anyone more than Allah? By obeying them over Allah and disobeying Allah for them, may Allah save us from this, loving for Allah’s sake is where the true sweetness of faith rests and we should all work to attain this sweetness of faith.

Denial of False Worship____________________________________

This condition may be very clear to some and may be an eye-opener for others, due to many calls by the modernists and moderates of this Ummah to dilute the rejection of false worship I am mentioning it here explicitly to clear up all misconceptions. Allah says in the Qur’an

“And he who rejects false deities and believes in Allah has grasped a firm handhold which will never break” (al-Baqarah: 256).

The Prophet (peace be upon him) made this point even clearer when he said, “Whoever says there is no one worthy of worship except Allah and denies whatever is worshipped besides Allah, then his wealth and blood are protected and his accounting will be with Allah.” (Muslim)

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says in the Qur’an:

There has already been for you an excellent pattern in Abraham and those with him, when they said to their people, “Indeed, we are disassociated from you and from whatever you worship other than Allah. We have denied you, and there has appeared between us and you animosity and hatred forever until you believe in Allah alone” (al-Mumtahanah: 4)

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Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) explains it clearly to us that we have an excellent example for us in Ibrahim (alayhi sallam), when he and those with him went out to his people and showed clear disassociating from them and whatever they worshipped besides Allah, they denied them openly and clearly, this is our position towards False Worship.

Adherence until Death_____________________________________

This is must if the shahadah is to mean anything for you in the Hereafter. You cannot rest on your laurels of what you may have done in the past. No, indeed, the shahadah must be your banner until your death. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said,” A man spends a long time doing the deeds of the people of Paradise and then he ends his deeds with the deeds of the people of the Hell-fire. And a man spends a long time doing the deeds of the people of the Hell-fire and then he ends his deeds with the deeds of the people of Paradise.” (Recorded by Muslim)

In another hadith, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said,

“By the One beside whom there is no other God, one of you does the actions of Paradise until there is just a hand span between him and Paradise and then the book [preordainment] overtakes him and he does the actions of the people of Hell and he enters into it.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

And Allah says in the Qur’an,

“O believers, observe your duty to Allah with right observance, and die not except as Muslims “O believers, observe your duty to Allah with right observance, and die not except as Muslims [in complete state of surrender, submission, obedience to Allah]” [in complete state of surrender, submission, obedience to Allah]” (al-Imran: 102)

Dear brothers and sisters, these are the conditions of the shahadah. These are the aspects of the shahadah that each and every one of us should look deep down into our own hearts and ask ourselves, are we really fulfilling and meeting these requirements?

It is not enough to simply memorise these conditions and the answers to the questions; true understanding of Allah’s Deen is through implementation of Allah’s Deen.

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____The Testimony (LailahaIllaAllah) consists of Two Pillars

The testimony (Shahadah) is classified as an announcement, decree, notification, or explanation. The term Shahadah was employed for the testimony that none has the right to be worshiped except Allah because it is the greatest declaration and testimony in existence, due to the greatness of the Truth that it testifies to (i.e., that nothing deserves to be worshiped except Allah). Thus, when the word Shahadah is mentioned in an unrestricted (absolute) sense, it automatically implies this particular declaration.

Tawheed is LailahaIllaAllah, Tawheed is monotheism, Tawheed is Oneness of Allah, “There is no deity or entity worthy of worship except Allah”.

Literally Tawheed means “unification” (making something one) or “asserting oneness” and it comes from the Arabic verb “wahhada”, which itself means to unite, unify or consolidate. However when Tawheed is used in reference to Allah (tawheedullah), it means realizing and affirming Allah’s unity in all of man’s actions which directly or indirectly relate to Him.

  •   It is rejection and negation of everything that is worshipped besides Allah
    (Al Kufr [disbelief/rejection] bil Taghout [in anything worshipped besides Allah]);
  •   Belief that Allah’s One, without partner in His dominion (ar-Ruboobeeyah);
  •   One without similitude in His essence and attributes (al-Asmaa’ was-Sifaat);
  •   One without rival in His divinity and in worship (al-Uluhiyyah); and
  •   One without rival in His Judgement (Hukm) and Legislation (Tashree’).

    Allah (azza wa jall) bears witness for Himself that none has the right to be worshiped but Him, and likewise that the angels and the people of knowledge bear witness to that also, and that He (subhanahu wa ta’ala) maintains justice and He affirms that with His saying:

    “Allah bears witness that none has the right to be worshiped but He.” (Al-Imran 3/18)

    This testimony is the greatest testimony due to the exaltedness of the One testifying and of that which is being testified to, since the witness is Allah, and His angels and the people of knowledge, and that which is witnessed to is the Tawheed (Monotheism) of Allah in worship.

    The omission of any of the above mentioned aspects of Tawheed is referred to as Shirk (which literally means “sharing”), here it signifies the association of partners with Allah, this refers to idolatry (polytheism).The seriousness of Shirk is stated by Allah in Surat Al-Ma’idah,

    They have certainly disbelieved who say, ” Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary” while the Messiah has said, “O Children of Israel, worship Allah , my Lord and your Lord.” Indeed, he who associates others with Allah – Allah has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire. And there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers. (al-Ma’idah: 72)

    You may ask how do we make sure we never fall into shirk? It’s by studying Tawheed and Shirk so as to never fall into Shirk and to have correct and sound Belief in Allah.
    The testimony (LailahaIllaAllah) comprises two pillars: The first pillar is the pillar of negation (Nafy); while the second is the pillar of affirmation (Ithbaat), these are also known as the Pillars of Tawheed.

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_____________The First Pillar of Tawheed: Negation (Nafy)

Lailaha ‘there is no deity’, negates divinity and worship for anything and everything (except Allah).

The first pillar of the testimony of faith denies the attribute of divinity to anyone and anything other than Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). All those other than Allah, such as the angels, the Prophets, and the rest of mankind, not to mention the idols and the political regimes in the world, are not gods thus don’t deserve to be worshiped. These are Taghout (false deities/gods) invented by the creation; therefore, denial in this respect is not denial of the existence of the alleged gods, rather the denial of divinity which is attributed to these false gods.

It is very important to know that one can never be a monotheist until he completely disbelieves and rejects ‘Taghout’. This can never be achieved until he knows the meaning of the word ‘Taghout’.

Literally speaking, the word ‘Taghout’ derives from the verb ‘Tagha’ which means ‘to exceed the proper bounds or limits.’ Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said: “Verily when the water rose beyond its limits (Tagha i.e., Nuh’s flood). We carried you (mankind) in the floating (ship).” (al-Haqqa: 11)

The definition of ‘Taghout’ in Shari’ah is ‘anyone who exceeds the proper limits by ascribing to himself any of the rights of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and makes himself a partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)’.

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said: “Go to Fir’awn; verily, he has transgressed all bounds (Tagha i.e., in crimes, sins, polytheism, disbelief).” (an-Nazi`at: 17)

In other words a Taghout is anyone who ascribes to himself one of the acts of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), such as creation, provision or legislation or ascribes to himself any of the attributes of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), such as knowledge of the ghayb (unseen). A person may also become a Taghout if he/she allows certain acts of worship to be directed to him/herself -acts such as invocation, offering, sacrifice or legislation. So anyone who ascribes to himself any of the above acts of worship- he has become a Taghout and a partner with Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala)

Imam Malik defined Taghout as: “Anything or anyone worshiped apart from Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) and this is a general definition, which includes a lot of things that are worshiped such as idols, graves, stones, trees and other such inanimate objects. This definition also includes Satan (the biggest Taghout), witches, soothsayers (claiming knowledge of the unseen), those who are pleased with people directing acts of worship to them, and those who legislate (making things Halaal and Haraam). All these are Tawaghit (Plural of Taghout) that every Muslim should disassociate himself from them and from those who worship them.”

Imam Muhammad bin Abdu’l-Wahhab said: “To declare disbelief in all objects of worship besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is proof of negation. One’s wealth and blood cannot become protected except by doing so. If a person has any doubt or hesitation regarding this then his wealth and blood will not be protected…Know that a person can only remain a true believer except by declaring disbelief in Taghout and the evidence for this is when Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says: ‘Whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold.” (Majmu at-Tawheed) Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Abdu’l-Wahhab (rahimahullaah) said: “The Tawaghit are many and their

heads are five.

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1- Satan who invites people to worship other than Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala). Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said:

“Did I not command you Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytan. Verily he is a clear enemy to you.” (Ya-Sin: 60)

2- The oppressive ruler who changes the laws of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), Allah (azza wa jall) said:

“Have you seen those (hypocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you, and they wish to go for judgment (in their disputes) to the Taghout (false judges) while they have been ordered to reject them. But Shaytan wishes to lead them far astray.” (an-Nisa’: 60)

3- The one who does not govern by what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has revealed. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said:

“Verily, We did send down the Tawrat, therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to Allah’s Will, judged for the Jews. And the rabbis and the priests, for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah’s Book. Therefore fear not men but fear Me and sell not My Verses for a miserable price. And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed are the Kafirun (disbelievers).” (al-Ma’idah: 44)

4- The one who claims knowledge of the unseen. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) stated:

“[He is] Knower of the unseen, and He does not disclose His [knowledge of the] unseen to anyone” (Jinn: 26)

5- The one who is worshiped and pleased with it. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said:

“And if any of them should say: Verily I am an Ilah (god) besides Him such a one We should recompense with Hell. Thus We should recompense the Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers).”

(al-‘Anbiya’: 29)

Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Abdu’l-Wahhab also said concerning the last verse of Surah al-Kahf: “…associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord…”(18:110), so know may Allah have mercy on you, that those who understand this verse perfectly are the ones who totally distinguish between the unity of Lordship and unity of worship, and know that most people are either Tawaghit who challenge Allah (azza wa jall) in His Lordship or people who worship them or others who have doubts about what Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has revealed to His Prophet and do not differentiate between the Deen (religion) of our Prophet (salAllahu alayhi wasallam) and the Deen (religion) of the Christians.”

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_______The Second Pillar of Tawheed: Affirmation (Ithbaat)

IllaAllah ‘except Allah’, affirms divinity and worship for Allah Exclusively.

The second pillar of the testimony of faith affirms and restricts divinity to Allah alone. This means that the slave must believe that Allah is the only true God, and accordingly he will not dedicate any act of worship to someone or something other than Allah.

The meaning of lailahaillaAllah is that none has the right to be worshiped except Allah. The testimony lailahaillaAllah is that a person affirms with his tongue and his heart that there is nothing that is worshiped rightly except Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) since ‘Ilah’ means that which is worshiped (ma’bud). So the sentence lailahaillaAllah comprises a denial and an affirmation. As for the denial, it is lailaha (None has the right to be worshiped), and as for the affirmation, it is illaAllah (except Allah).

Ibn Qayyim said: “The significance of lailahaillaAllah in affirming divinity and worship for Allah alone is far greater than just saying that Allah is an Ilah (god). This is because the saying that Allah is an Ilah does not negate divinity and worship to other than Allah. This is different from the saying: lailahaillaAllah, which obligates restricting divinity and worship to only Allah. Likewise, those who explain al-Ilah to mean: The one who has the ability to create and originate have for sure committed a grave error.

Shaykh al Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) said:

“For this reason, anyone who does not worship Allah certainly worships other than Allah. Mankind is of two types:

The Muwahhid (Monotheist) and those who are Mushrik (Polytheist) or those who mix Tawheed (Monotheism) with Shirk (Polytheism); Christians, Jews and deviated ones who attribute themselves to Islam and their likes are Mushrik (Polytheist) who mix Tawheed (Monotheism) and Shirk (Polytheism). “ (Majmu al-Fatawa, 14/282);

“Whoever is arrogant regarding worship to Allah is not Muslim. And whoever worships any other object while worshiping Allah is also not Muslim.” (Kitaabu’n-Nubuwwah, 127)

Affirmation of Tawheed has been categorized in four for ease of explanation:
 Belief that Allah’s One, without partner in His dominion (ar-Ruboobeeyah);  One without similitude in His essence and attributes (al-Asmaa’ was-Sifaat);  One without rival in His divinity and in worship (al-Uluhiyyah); and
 One without rival in His Judgement (Hukm) and Legislation (Tashree’).

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____________________________Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah

Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah: means, “Maintaining the Oneness of Lordship,” that is, affirming that Allah is one, without partners in His Sovereignty.

This category of Tawheed is based on the fundamental concept that Allah alone caused all things to exist when there was nothing; Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah is you testifying that the Creator of the entire universe, including the stars, the planets, the sun, the moon, the heavens, the earth with all its known and unknown forms of life, is Allah. He is the Organizer and Planner of all its affairs. It is He Who gives life and death, and He (i.e. Allah Alone) is the Sustainer, and the Giver of Security, etc.

In Arabic the word used to describe this Creator-Sustainer quality is Ruboobeeyah, which is derived from the root word “Rabb” (Lord). It is He, Allah who gave all things the power to move and to change. Nothing happens in creation except what He allows to happen. In recognition of this reality, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) used to often repeat the exclamatory phrase “La hawla wa laa quwwata illa billah.” (There is no movement nor power except by Allah’s will).

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is, over all things, Disposer of affairs. (az-Zumar: 62)

Allah is the one who created you, then provided for you, then will cause you to die, and then will give you life. Are there any of your “partners” who does anything of that? Exalted is He and high above what they associate with Him. (ar-Rum: 40)

No disaster strikes except by permission of Allah . And whoever believes in Allah – He will guide his heart. And Allah is Knowing of all things. (at-Taghabun: 11)

And Allah created you all and whatever you do. (as-Saffat: 96)

The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) additionally expounds this concept by saying,

“Be aware that if the whole of mankind gathered together in order to do something to help you, they would only be able to do something for you which Allah had already written for you.

Likewise, if the whole of mankind gathered together to harm you, they would only be able to do something to harm you which Allah had already written to happen to you.” (Tirmidhi)

We were with the Prophet on a journey, and whenever we ascended a high place, we used to say, “Allahu Akbar.” The Prophet said, “Don’t trouble yourselves too much! You are not calling a deaf or an absent person, but you are calling One Who Hears, Sees, and is very near.” Then he came to me while I was saying in my heart, “La hawla wala quwwatta illa billah (There is neither might nor power but with Allah).” He said, to me, “O ‘Abdullah bin Qais! Say, ‘La hawla wala quwwata illa billah (There is neither might nor power but with Allah), for it is one of the treasures of Paradise.” Or said, “Shall I tell you of it?” (Bukhari)

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________________________Tawheed al-Asmaa’ was-Sifaat

Tawheed al-Asmaa’ was-Sifaat: means, “Maintaining the unity of Allah’s Names and Attributes,” that is, affirming that they are incomparable and unique.

Tawheed al-Asmaa’ was-Sifaat can easily be summed up to be the affirmation and unification of Allah’s Names and attributes without any distortion, negation, speculation nor analogy.

The belief of Ahlus Sunnah regarding the Names and Attributes of Allah is one of belief in all that has been mentioned in the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah by way of affirming and negating where appropriate. As a result, they:

  1. Name Allah with the Names that He has Named Himself with; they do not add to nor omit from any of these Names.
  2. Affirm and describe Allah (azza wa jall) with what He has described Himself with in His Book or upon the tongue of His Messenger, without committing any distortion, negation, speculation or analogy.
  3. Negate for Allah that which He Himself has negated from Himself in His Book or upon the tongue of His Messenger Muhammad with the belief that Allah is depicted with the opposite of that negated matter in its perfect sense.

The people of the Sunnah will turn nowhere away from that which the Messengers have brought. It is the Straight Path, the path of those upon whom Allah has bestowed His grace among the prophets, the ever-truthful, ever-faithful disciples, the martyrs, and all other righteous ones.

Thus, belief in Allah’s names and attributes is based upon two fundamental principles: negation and affirmation. Negation refers to rejecting with respect to Allah all attributes which contradict His perfection, including all types of faults, weaknesses or needs. We reject the idea that Allah could have any partner or peer. Nor can there be any comparable to Him in any of his attributes or the rights due to him alone. There are two types of affirmation: affirmation of general attributes such as Allah’s absolute perfection, majesty, etc; and affirmation of detailed attributes such as His detailed knowledge of all things, his decree of all events, His mercy, etc.

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says in the Qur’an:
There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing. (ash-Shuraa: 11)

This ayah (verse) confirms the quality of hearing and the quality of sight for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) without resemblance to others, and likewise Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said:

Negation (of a negative attribute) alone, not accompanied by affirmation (of its opposite) is not

praise and is not befitting Allah. Thus, every negation which Allah has attributed to himself contains

and implies the affirmation of its opposite. Allah’s negation of His having any partner or sharing any

common attributes with any of his creation or of anything escaping His knowledge or of his acting

with frivolity or of His forgetting, becoming tired or being touched by sleep all imply their opposites

among Allah’s attributes of perfection.

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[ Allah ] said, “O Iblees, what prevented you from prostrating to that which I created with My hands?(Sad: 75)

The hand of Allah is over their hands. (al-Fath: 10)

These ayat (verse) confirm that Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) has two Hands, but there is no similarity for them with the creation, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said:

There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing. (ash-Shuraa: 11) Similarly Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said:
The Most Beneficent (Allah) Istawa (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne (Taha: 5)

He (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is in no need of His Throne, but He rose over the Throne in a manner that suits His Majesty, Allah is over His Throne, over the seventh heaven, as the slave-girl pointed towards the heavens, when Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) asked her as to where Allah is?

Muawiyah bin Al-Hakam As-Salmi said:

“I had a slave-girl who used to herd sheep for me. One day I discovered that a wolf had killed one of her sheep, and I’m a man from the children of Adam, I get upset like they get upset, and I slapped her in the face. Then I went to the Prophet who impressed upon me the seriousness of my act. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, should I not set her free?’ He said, ‘Bring her to me.’ He asked her, ‘Where is Allah’, She said, ‘He is above the heavens.’ He said, ‘Who am I?’ She said, ‘You are the Messenger of Allah.’ He said, ‘Free her, for she is a believer.’ (Muslim &Abu Dawud)

Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy upon him), said “Allah is not described except with what He Himself and His Messenger have described Him with; we do not exceed the boundaries of the Qur’an and Sunnah.” (Al-Fatwa al-Hamawiyyah, pg. 61.)

Ibn ‘Abdil-Barr (may Allah have mercy upon him), said: “With respect to belief, in totality, there do not reside any Names or Attributes except that they have been specifically mentioned in the Book of Allah, are authentically reported from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him or have been agreed upon by the Ummah; and as for the ahad (hadith) reports narrated in this area, entirely, or in other similar areas, they are accepted and not to be challenged.” (Jami’ Bayan al-‘Ilm wa Fadlih, pg. 96.)

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_______________________________Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah

Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah: means, “Affirming that Allah is alone in his right to be worshipped”.

The pinnacle of Tawheed is to direct all worships to Allah alone, this is what all the Messengers and Prophets came with, with the same Message, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says,

And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], “Worship Allah and avoid Taghout.” And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those upon whom error was [deservedly] decreed. So proceed through the earth and observe how was the end of the deniers. (an- Nahl: 36)

And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, “There is no deity except Me, so worship Me.” (al-‘Anbiya: 25)

We had certainly sent Noah to his people, and he said, “O my people, worship Allah ; you have no deity other than Him. Indeed, I fear for you the punishment of a tremendous Day. (al-‘Ar’af: 59)

And to the ‘Aad [We sent] their brother Hud. He said, “O my people, worship Allah ; you have no deity other than Him. Then will you not fear Him?” (al-‘Ar’af: 65)

And to the Thamud [We sent] their brother Salih. He said, “O my people, worship Allah ; you have no deity other than Him. There has come to you clear evidence from your Lord. (al-‘Ar’af: 73)

And to [the people of] Madyan [We sent] their brother Shu’ayb. He said, “O my people, worship Allah ; you have no deity other than Him. (al-‘Ar’af: 85)

And to ‘Aad [We sent] their brother Hud. He said, “O my people, worship Allah ; you have no deity other than Him. You are not but inventors [of falsehood]. (Hud: 50)

And to Thamud [We sent] their brother Salih. He said, “O my people, worship Allah ; you have no deity other than Him. He has produced you from the earth and settled you in it, so ask forgiveness of Him and then repent to Him. Indeed, my Lord is near and responsive.” (Hud: 61)

And to Madyan [We sent] their brother Shu’ayb. He said, “O my people, worship Allah ; you have no deity other than Him. (Hud: 84)

To have Tawheed ar-Rububiyyah is not enough, to recognise Allah in His Lordship is not enough, as this is what the Jews, Christians and Pagans of Makkah did, they recognised that Allah was a Lord but they still associated partners beside Him by worshipping other than Allah.

In the Qur’an Allah tells the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) to say to the Pagans:

Say, “Who provides for you from the heaven and the earth? Or who controls hearing and sight and who brings the living out of the dead and brings the dead out of the living and who arranges [every] matter?” They will say, ” Allah ,” so say, “Then will you not fear Him?” (Yunus: 31)

And if you asked them who created them, they would surely say, ” Allah .” So how are they deluded? (az-Zukhruf: 87)

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The pagan Makkans all knew that Allah was their creator, sustainer, their Lord and Master; yet that knowledge did not make them Muslims according to Allah, in fact, Allah said:

And most of them believe not in Allah except while they associate others with Him. (Yusuf: 106)

The most important aspect of Tawheed is that of Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah, maintaining the unity of Allah’s worship, all forms of worship must be directed only to Allah because He alone deserve worship, and it is He alone who can grant benefit to man as a result of His worship.

Allah has made clear the main purpose of man’s creation and the message brought by all the Prophets & Messengers, He said:

And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me. (adh-Dhariyat: 56)

In Surat al-Fatihah, which every Muslim is required to recite in his or her daily prayers a minimum of 17 times, ayah (verse) five reads, “It is You we worship and You we ask for help.” (al-Fatihah: 5)

This is a clear statement that all forms of worship should be directed exclusively to the One who can respond, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), with no intercession, The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “If you ask in prayer ask only Allah, and if you seek help, seek it only from Allah” (Tirmidhi)

There is no need for intercession, and this is not needed, this is further explained to us by verses indicating Allah’s closeness to man, Allah says,

And when My servants ask you, [O Muhammad], concerning Me – indeed I am near. I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me. So let them respond to Me [by obedience] and believe in Me that they may be [rightly] guided. (al-Baqarah: 186)

And We have already created man and know what his soul whispers to him, and We are closer to him than [his] jugular vein (Qaf: 16)

The confirmation and affirmation of Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah necessitates the denial and rejection of all forms of intercessions or association of partners with Allah in all acts of worship. The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Prayer (du’a) is worship” (Abu Dawud), therefore none can be invoked or called upon other than Allah as this is His Right on His slave, to be singled out exclusively, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says,

He said, “Then do you worship instead of Allah that which does not benefit you at all or harm you? (al-‘Anbiya: 66)

Indeed, those you [polytheists] call upon besides Allah are servants like you. So call upon them and let them respond to you, if you should be truthful. (al-‘A`raf: 194)

The Makkans were questioned about directing their prayers to their idols, their answer was,

“We only worship them that they may bring us nearer to Allah” (az-Zumar: 3)

The idols were only used as intermediaries yet Allah called them pagans for their practice, we Muslims should take a lesson from this lest we fall into the same error as the pagans.

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______________________________Tawheed al-Hakimiyyah

Tawheed al-Hakimiyyah: means, unifying Allah, the Most High, alone in His Judgement (Hukm) and His Legislation (Tashree’). So just as He, the Most High has no partner in His Dominion and in controlling the affairs of the creation; likewise, He has no partner in the Judgement (Hukm) and Legislation (Tashree’).

This category is based on the fundamental concept that Allah alone is the Judge and Legislator; He shares no partners in legislation, as He says in Surat al-Kahf,

He shares not His legislation with anyone (al-Kahf: 26)

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) also says,

O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result. (an-Nisa: 59)

Indeed, We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted [to Allah ] judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of Allah , and they were witnesses thereto. So do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the disbelievers. (al-Ma’idah: 44)

You worship not besides Him except [mere] names you have named them, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. Legislation is not but for Allah . He has commanded that you worship not except Him. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know. (Yusuf: 40)

In the previous ayah (verse) Allah uses a correlation between Legislation and worship, He has said that right of Legislation is for none but Allah, and He has commanded that you worship not except Him, so following another legislator is also an act of worship to other than Allah so both the Legislator and the one who seeks the legislation (which is an act of worship) are disbelievers.

In the previous pages the meaning of Taghout has been explained, we see the importance of the rejection of Taghout for complete, full, sound, correct Tawheed and to be classed as a Muwahhid (monotheist), we see the importance of rejecting all associations with Allah.

Legislation is only for Allah, so when one puts himself as a legislator besides Allah then he has committed shirk by putting himself as a partner besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in Legislation. He has given the Rights of Legislation which are Only for Allah, to himself and Allah rebukes these people in the Qur’an when He says,

Then is it the judgement of [the time of] ignorance they desire? But who is better than Allah in judgement for a people who are certain [in faith]. (al-Ma’idah: 50)

Allah does not just stop at the Legislator, He (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the Most Just, He also explains what the position of the one whom goes to receive the legislation is, He says in the Qur’an

Have you not seen those who claim to have believed in what was revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you? They wish to refer legislation to Taghout, while they were commanded to reject it; and Satan wishes to lead them far astray. (an-Nisa:60)

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But no, by your Lord, they will not [truly] believe until they make you, [O Muhammad], judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves and then find within themselves no discomfort from what you have judged and submit in [full, willing] submission. (an-Nisa: 65)

This ayah (verse) tells us specifically, they we will never believe completely until we make Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as a judge over us, and what did the Prophet come with? He came with the Qur’an and the Sunnah to judge amongst us, so whoever leaves this and seeks a judgement from other than the law of Allah has negated his Tawheed.

On one occasion, the Prophet’s companion, ‘Adi Ibn Haatim, who was a revert from Christianity, heard the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) reciting the Qur’anic verse,

“They have taken their scholars and monks as lords besides Allah (at-Tawbah: 31)”

So he said: ‘Surely we did not worship them.” The Prophet turned to him and said ‘Did they not make haraam what Allah had made halaal and you made it haraam, and did they not make halaal what Allah made haraam and you made it halaal?’ He replied, ‘We certainly did.’ The Prophet then said, ‘that was how you worshipped them.” (Tirmidhi)

The Sayings of the Scholars on this Matter______________________

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah:

“Whenever a person makes halaal what is haraam by consensus or makes haraam what is halaal by consensus or replaces the Shari’ah that is agreed upon by consensus, then he is a Kaffir by the agreement of the scholars of Fiqh.”– (Majmu Al-Fataawa, Vol. 3/267.)

“The Shari’ah revealed from Allah ta’ala, which is the Qur’an and Sunnah that Allah sent His Messenger with, no one from the creation is allowed to leave it. And no one leaves it but a Kaffir.” – (Majmu Al-Fataawa, Vol. 11/262)

“And it is known by necessity in the Deen of the Muslims and by the agreement of all the Muslims that whoever follows a Shari’ah other than the Shari’ah of Muhammad then he is a disbeliever and it is like the Kufr of the one who believes in some of the Book and disbelieves in some of the Book.” – (Majmu Al-Fataawa, Vol. 28/524.)

“There are many people who accept Islam, but do not rule except by the prevailing customs that are commanded by obeyed lords (taghout). Such people know that it is not permissible to rule by other than what Allah revealed, but do not apply them, rather they deem as lawful to rule by other than what Allah sent down, they are disbelievers.” – (Minhaaj as-Sunnah.)

Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah:

“(A taghout is) everyone who exceeded his limits (whether he is) worshipped, followed or obeyed. So, the taghout of any people is the one who they make as a judge besides Allah and His Prophet, or worship him except Allah, or follow him without taking any consideration of Allah, or obey him in a matter where they do not know it is obedience for Allah. Whosoever does not judge or turn to what the Messengers of Allah brought for judgement is eventually following a (false) deity.” – (E’laam Al- Muwaaqi’een, vol. 1/50.)

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___________________________Shirk (Associating Partners)

One of the most important obligations is to know the meaning of shirk, its seriousness and its

different types, so that our Tawheed (belief in the Oneness of Allaah) and our Islam may be

complete, and our faith may be sound.

The word Shirk in Arabic means taking a partner, i.e. regarding someone as the partner of another. It

is said in Arabic: ashraka baynahuma (he joined them together) when he regarded them as two of

equal status; or ashraka fi amrihi ghayrahu (he introduced another into his affair) when he made two

people involved in it.

In Terms of Shari’ah or Islamic terminology, shirk means ascribing a partner or rival to Allah in Lordship (Ruboobiyah), Worship (Uluhiyyah), Legislation or Judgement (Hakimiyyah) or in His names and attributes (al-Asmaa’ was-Sifaat).

Shirk can be easily said to be anything that opposes Tawheed, which we have explained to the reader in the previous pages.

Allah the Almighty says,

And they have attributed to Allah equals to mislead [people] from His way. Say, “Enjoy yourselves, for indeed, your destination is the Fire.” (‘Ibrahim: 30)

So do not attribute to Allah equals while you know [that there is nothing similar to Him]. (al-Baqarah: 22)

Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly gone far astray. (an-Nisa: 116)

Inclining [only] to Allah , not associating [anything] with Him. And he who associates with Allah – it is as though he had fallen from the sky and was snatched by the birds or the wind carried him down into a remote place. (al-Haj: 31)

And when those who associated others with Allah see their “partners,” they will say,” Our Lord, these are our partners [to You] whom we used to invoke besides You.” But they will throw at them the statement, “Indeed, you are liars.” (an-Nahl: 86)

And Allah has said, “Do not take for yourselves two deities. He is but one God, so fear only Me.” (an-Nahl: 51)

Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly fabricated a tremendous sin. (an-Nisa: 48)

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever dies claiming that Allah has a rival, will enter Hell.” (Bukhari & Muslim)

Shirk has been divided into two types, Major Shirk and Minor Shirk

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Major Shirk______________________________________________

This means ascribing to someone other than Allah something that belongs to Allah alone. This kind of shirk is commonly committed by those who worship idols, graves and the dead but it is not limited to them as we have explained above that worship is not just through this, but it is also through following the Judgement and Legislation of others, it is any form of worship that is for Allah alone being directed to other than Allah.

Shirk can take the form of belief in another creator, another bringing of life or death or controller of the affairs of the universe besides Allah, this is Shirk in His Ruboobiyah, or there may be an association with Allah in love, which is only for Allah and Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gives a strong warning to those who love anything more than Allah, He (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says,

And [yet], among the people are those who take other than Allah as equals [to Him]. They love them as they [should] love Allah . But those who believe are stronger in love for Allah . And if only they who have wronged would consider [that] when they see the punishment, [they will be certain] that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is severe in punishment. (al-Baqarah: 165)

Shirk may sometimes take the form of actions:

Such as one who sacrifices, prays or prostrates to something other than Allah, or who promulgates laws to replace the rulings of Allah and makes that the law to which people are obliged to refer for judgement; or one who supports the kafirs and helps them against the believers, and other acts that go against the basic meaning of faith and put the one who does them beyond the pale of Islam. We ask Allah to keep us safe and sound.

Minor Shirk______________________________________________

Minor Shirk are the acts such as Riya’ (doing good deeds for show) and seeking reputation, as when reciting the Qur’an, offering Salaat or calling to the Path of Allah and the like for the sake of showing off. It is authentically reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “The thing that I fear most for you is minor Shirk.” They said, “O Messenger of Allah! What is minor Shirk?” He said, “Riya’.

It is minor Shirk to swear by anyone or anything other than Allah such as swearing by the Ka‘bah, the Parents, the Children, etc.

There is another form of minor Shirk called Shirk Khafi (hidden Shirk). The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “It is the hidden Shirk; a person stands up in Salaat (Prayer) and tries to make it perfect when he realizes that others are looking at him.” (Related by Imam Ahmad)

With regard to minor Shirk, they may be forgiven for committing it. However, they may be punished for this by being admitted into the Fire for some time. Minor Shirk nullifies the acts, performed by a person. For example, if someone offers Salaat out of Riya’ he or she will not be rewarded for it; but the person will be punished for such an act.

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What the Muslim must do is to avoid shirk in both its minor and major forms. The greatest sin is shirk and transgression against the unique rights of Allah, which are to be worshipped and obeyed alone, with no partner or associate.

Hence Allah has decreed that the mushrikeen will abide forever in Hell and has told us that He will not forgive them, and He has forbidden Paradise to them, as He says:

“Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills; and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin” (an-Nisa: 48)

“Verily, whosoever sets up partners (in worship) with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers) there are no helpers” (al-Maa’idah: 72)

Every wise and religiously-committed person should fear shirk for himself and should turn to his Lord, asking Him to help him avoid shirk, as Ibrahim (peace be upon him) said:

“and keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols” (‘Ibrahim: 35)

One of the salaf said: “Who can claim to be safe from this after Ibrahim?”

So the sincere believer’s fear of shirk should increase as should his desire for his for his Lord to keep him away from it, and he should say the great du’a which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught to his companions when he said to them: “Shirk among you will be more subtle than the footsteps of an ant, but I will teach you something which, if you do it, both minor and major shirk will be kept away from you. Say: Allaahumma inni a’oodhu bika an ushrika bika wa ana a’lam wa astaghfiruka lima la a’lam (O Allaah, I seek refuge with You from associating anything with You knowingly, and I seek Your forgiveness for that of which I am unaware).” (Bukhari)

Major shirk puts a person beyond the pale of Islam, so the one who does that is judged to be out of Islam and to have apostatised therefrom, so he is a kafir and an apostate.

Minor shirk does not put a person beyond the pale of Islam, rather it may be done by a Muslim but he still remains in Islam; but the one who does that is in great danger because minor shirk is a major sin.

Ibn Mas’ood (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “If I were to swear by Allah falsely, that is better for me than if I was to swear by something other than Him sincerely.” So he regarded swearing by something other than Allah (which is minor shirk) as being worse than swearing by Allah falsely, and it is well known that swearing by Allah falsely is a major sin.

We ask Allah to make our hearts steadfast in adhering to His religion until we meet Him, and we seek refuge in His Might – may He be glorified – from going astray, for He is the Ever-Living Who never dies, but the jinn and mankind will die. And Allah knows best and is most wise, and to Him is the final return of all.

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__________________________________Bid’ah (Innovation)

Bidah (Innovation) in Islam is the invention, creation or addition of any religious matter which was not (originally) found in Islam. Therefore, Islam warns against it and invalidates any religious deed which does not originate from the Qur’an and the Sunnah.

The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings be upon him said: “Every innovation is misguidance and going astray” (Abu Dawud& Tirmidhi), and he (peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “… and every innovation is misguidance and all misguidance is in the Hellfire.”(an-Nasai), and he (peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “He who innovates something in this matter of ours (Islam) that is not of it, will have it rejected.” (Bukhari & Muslim)

Allah ta’ala says,

“This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion.” (al-Ma’idah: 3)

Why would there be any need logically for an innovation in the religion if you truly believed in Allah’s words, that He (subhanahu wata’ala) has perfected Islam and has approved it as your Religion.

This ayah embodies a clear statement that the deen has been completed and thus has no need of addition or deletion. Also the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him said, “There is nothing that Allaah ordered you with except that I have ordered you with it, and there is nothing that Allah forbade you from except that I have forbidden you from it.” (Bayhaqi)

So the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) fulfilled the trust placed upon him by Allah completely, explaining the religion to the people in its outward and inward form, making clear the lawful from the prohibited, the encouraged from the discouraged, to the extent that he taught us the manners of using the toilet.

Allah says in His Book “And We have revealed to you a Book explaining everything.” (an-Nahl: 89)

“We have neglected nothing in the Book.” (al-‘An`am: 37)

The Importance of Sticking to the Sunnah

Allah says, “Indeed you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent example for the one who hopes in Allah and looks to the Last Day.” (al-‘Ahzab: 21)

He (subhanahu wata’ala) also says, “So if you obey him (peace and blessings be upon him), then you will be guided.” (an-Nur: 54)

Also the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “I have left behind me two things: as long as you cling to them you will never go astray. They are the Book of Allaah and my Sunnah (life example).” (Haakim) And he also said, “…and you will live to see great differing, so cling to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly-guided Khalifas after me, even if it be with your molar teeth…” (Bukhari)

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_________________________________Al Walaa Wal Baraa

The milestone, the strongest bond of Iman (faith) is Al Walaa Wal Baraa, loving and hating for the sake of Allah Alone. It is one of the most important beliefs of Islam after Tawheed. Allah says in His Book:

Let not believers take disbelievers as allies rather than believers. And whoever [of you] does that has nothing with Allah , except when taking precaution against them in prudence. And Allah warns you of Himself, and to Allah is the [final] destination. (‘Ali `Imran: 28)

The reason why Al Walaa Wal Baraa is so important in Islam is because, if it is taken into practice, it can remove all the characteristics of Jahiliyyah from the Muslim Ummah, it guarantees the preservation of the Ummah, and it distinguishes the believer from the disbeliever. When one loves and hates for Allah’s sake only, they are raised degrees higher than those who love, hate, and act based on their own desires or fake gods or for other meaningless things. Allah states in His Speech:

Those who believe fight in the cause of Allah , and those who disbelieve fight in the cause of Taghout. So fight against the allies of Satan. Indeed, the plot of Satan has ever been weak. (an-Nisa: 76)

Those who have Iman and act upon Al Walaa Wal Baraa fight for Allah’s cause and do battle with His enemies to preserve His Deen, while those who disbelieve fight in the cause of False Deities.

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) commands:

Fight them until there is no more Fitnah (kufr & shirk) and until worship is for Allah alone. (al- Baqarah: 193)

Only the people who love and hate for the sake of Allah will act upon this command. These are the people that understand the meaning of Al Walaa Wal Baraa.

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: The strongest bond of faith is loyalty for the sake of Allah and opposition for His sake; love for the sake of Allah and enmity for His sake.

But what does this love and enmity exactly mean? Loving for the sake of Allah means to love Allah and to show loyalty to Him by following His Shari’ah. It means to love all that is good and permissible in the Qur’an and Sunnah. This type of love requires one to defend Allah’s religion and to preserve it. It is to love those who are obedient to Allah and to defend and assist them. These are the party of Allah. Enmity for the sake of Allah signifies showing anger towards those who oppose Allah, His Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him), His Deen, and the believers. It is to struggle and fight against them in order to uphold and spread the way of Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him).

There is a brilliant example of this in Ibrahim (peace be upon him), as narrated by Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) in the Qur’an:

There is a good example for you in Ibrahim and those with him when they told their people: Surely, we disassociate ourselves from you and all that you worship beside Allah. We have done with you.

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And there has arisen between us and you enmity and hate forever until you believe in Allah Alone. (al-Mumtahanah: 4)

Al Walaa Wal Baraa requires one to ally oneself with Allah, His Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him), and the believers wherever they are found against the disbelievers even if it is against their own relatives. We see this in the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), who fought against his own relatives and his own clan, all for the sake of Allah.

Al Walaa Wal Baraa aims to purify the society and rid the people of all vices. For example, we are required to oppose the way of the disbelievers. One of their habits is wasting their time in pursuing their own material desires. A Muslim who does not act upon Al Walaa Wal Baraa will imitate this habit and therefore become neglectful of his duties to Allah. This will lead to a corrupt person, who will end up raising a corrupt family, which will corrupt the community in whole.

Al Walaa Wal Baraa is what distinguishes a believer from a disbeliever. A believer allies himself with Allah only and with his final Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) and with the believers.

Allah ta’ala says:

The believing men and believing women are allies of one another. They enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and establish prayer and give zakaah and obey Allah and His Messenger. Those – Allah will have mercy upon them. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise. (at-Tawbah: 71)

O you who have believed, whoever of you should revert from his religion – Allah will bring forth [in place of them] a people He will love and who will love Him [who are] humble toward the believers, powerful against the disbelievers; they strive in the cause of Allah and do not fear the blame of a critic. That is the favour of Allah ; He bestows it upon whom He wills. And Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing. (al-Ma’idah: 54)

In order to be considered a believer, one must believe in Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) as well as show and prove that belief by assisting them and allying oneself with them against the enemies of Islam. The plans of the disbelievers are clearly exposed by Allah (subhanahu wata’ala) in the Qur’an:

They wish you would disbelieve as they disbelieved so you would be alike. So do not take from among them allies until they emigrate for the cause of Allah . But if they turn away, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them and take not from among them any ally or helper. (an-Nisa: 89)

O you who have believed, do not take the Jews and the Christians as allies. They are [in fact] allies of one another. And whoever is an ally to them among you – then indeed, he is [one] of them. Indeed, Allah guides not the wrongdoing people. (al-Ma’idah: 51)

If the believers join together as one brotherhood, sharing a mutual love and hate for the sake of Allah, Islam will come out on top regardless of how powerful their enemies may be. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and His Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) fought their battles, their enemies were always more in number and had better armour, but the Muslims were victorious as in the Battle of Badr. They shared one cause: fighting for the sake of Allah.

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_______________________________Articles of Iman (Faith)

The term Iman is basically translated to mean faith; there are six pillars of Iman in Islam, which consists of the following articles of faith.

These 6 pillars are based on a few verses in the Qur’an:

Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but [true] righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah , the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveller, those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes prayer and gives zakaah; [those who] fulfil their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous. (al-Baqarah: 177)

No disaster strikes upon the earth or among yourselves except that it is in a register before We bring it into being – indeed that, for Allah , is easy – (al-Hadid: 22)

Belief in Allah Most High____________________________________

A Muslim believes in the Oneness of Allah (Tawheed), Supreme and Eternal, Infinite and Mighty, Merciful and Compassionate, Creator and Provider. Allah has neither father nor mother, neither son nor was He fathered. None equal to Him. He is Allah of all mankind, not of a special tribe or race.

Allah is High and Supreme but He is very near to the pious thoughtful believers; He answers their prayers and helps them. He loves the people who love Him and forgives their sins. He gives them peace, happiness, knowledge and success. Allah is the Loving and the Provider, the Generous, and the Benevolent, the Rich and the Independent, the Forgiving and the Clement, the Patient and the Appreciative, the Unique and the Protector, the Judge and the Peace. Allah’s attributes are mentioned in the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him).

The greatest obligation on the Muslim is belief in Tawheed (Oneness of Allah), Tawheed is the opposite of Shirk (polytheism/associating partners with Allah), Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly fabricated a tremendous sin. (an- Nisa’: 48)

Part of the belief in Allah is the belief in all that with which He has described Himself in His Book or with which His Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has described Him without any distortion, negation, speculation (as to the exact nature of these attributes), nor analogy (comparing between Allah’s attributes and those of His creation bearing the same names).

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The Angels_______________________________________________

They are purely spiritual and splendid beings created by Allah. They require no food or drink or sleep. They have neither physical desires nor material needs. Angels spend their time in the service of Allah. Each is charged with a certain duty. Angels cannot be seen by the naked eyes. Knowledge and the truth are not entirely confined to sensory knowledge or sensory perception alone.

A Muslim must believe specifically in all the angels named and/or described in the Qur’an and the Sunnah:

  •   Jibreel: In Charge of delivering revelation
  •   Mika’il: in charge of bringing the rain
  •   The Noble Recorders: Those who record people’s actions
  •   The Protectors (Al-Muaqqibat): who keep people from death until its decreed time
  •   Munkar and Nakir: the questioners in the grave
  •   Those who record the future of the fetus
  •   Those who move about, descending upon gatherings at which Allah and His Book are mentioned and studied

 Israfil: The blower of the horn on Qiyama (Judgement day)

 Malik ul Maut: the Angel of Death who takes people’s souls at death

 Ridwan: in charge of Paradise  Malik: in charge of Hell

 The Carriers of the Throne of Allah  Those who enter the Harram

(Makkah): 70,000 every day

Belief in the angels is an integral part of Iman (faith), Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

The Messenger has believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord, and [so have] the believers. All of them have believed in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.”(al-Baqarah: 285)

And those who disbelieve and reject the angels, is in a state of disbelief (kufr), Allah says:

O you who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book that He sent down upon His Messenger and the Scripture which He sent down before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah , His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day has certainly gone far astray. (an-Nisa’: 136)

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Messengers and Prophets of Allah____________________________

A Muslim believes in all the Messengers and Prophets of Allah without any discrimination. All messengers were mortals, human beings, endowed with Divine revelations and appointed by Allah to teach mankind. Allah mentions in the Qur’an the names of 25 messengers and prophets and states that there are others. These include Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. Their message is the same and it is Islam and it came from One and the Same Source; Allah, and it is to submit to His will and to obey His law; i.e., to become a Muslim.

Say, “We have believed in Allah and in what was revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Descendants, and in what was given to Moses and Jesus and to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [submitting] to Him.” (Ali `Imran: 84)

The call of the Prophets was to Tawheed al Uluhiyyah (Worship of Allah exclusively), Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], “Worship Allah and avoid Taghout.” And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those upon whom error was [deservedly] decreed. So proceed through the earth and observe how was the end of the deniers. (An- Nahl: 36)

The Prophets came as warners to their nations, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

[We sent] messengers as bringers of good tidings and warners so that mankind will have no argument against Allah after the messengers. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise. (An-Nisa’: 165)

There are no Prophets or Messengers after the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) as he was the seal of the prophets, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

Muhammad is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing.(al-‘Ahzab: 40)

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Belief in the revealed Books_________________________________

A Muslim believes in all scriptures and revelations of Allah, as they were complete and in their original versions. Allah, the Creator, has not left man without guidance for the conduct of his life. Revelations were given to guide the people to the right path of Allah and sent down to selected people, the prophets and messengers, to convey it to their fellow men.

The message of all the prophet and messengers is the same. They all asked the people of their time to obey and worship Allah and none other. Ibrahim, Musa, Dawud, Isa and Muhammad who were revealed their own book of Allah, were sent at different times to bring back straying human beings from deviation to the right course.

Specific books mentioned in the Qur’an:
 As-Suhuf of Ibrahim and Musa  Al-Injeel revealed to Isa
 Az-Zaboor given to Dawud  At-Taurat revealed to Musa  Al-Qur’an the final revelation

The Qur’an is the sacred book of the Muslims. It is the last book of guidance from Allah, sent down to Muhammad, peace be upon him, through the angel Jibraeel (Gabriel). Every word of it is the word of Allah. It was revealed over a period of 23 years in the Arabic language. It contains 114 Surahs (chapters) and over 6000 verses.

The Qur’an deals with man and his ultimate goal in life. Its teachings cover all areas of this life and the life after death. It contains principles, doctrines and directions for every sphere of human life. The theme of the Qur’an broadly consists of three fundamental ideas: Oneness of Allah, Prophethood and life after death. The success of human beings on this earth and in the life hereafter depends on obedience to the Qur’anic teaching.

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

And this [Qur’an] is a Book We have revealed [which is] blessed, so follow it and fear Allah that you may receive mercy. (Al-‘An`am: 155)

And We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a criterion over it. So judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations away from what has come to you of the truth. To each of you We prescribed a law and a method. Had Allah willed, He would have made you one nation [united in religion], but [He intended] to test you in what He has given you; so race to [all that is] good. To Allah is your return all together, and He will [then] inform you concerning that over which you used to differ. (Al-Ma’idah: 48)

The Qur’an is unrivalled in its recording and preservation. The astonishing fact about this book of Allah is that it has remained unchanged even to a dot over the past fourteen hundred years. No scholar has questioned the fact that the Qur’an today is the same as it was revealed. Muslims till today memorize the Qur’an word by word as a whole or in part. Today, the Qur’an is the only authentic and complete book of Allah. Allah is protecting it from being lost, corrupted or concealed. Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

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Indeed, those who disbelieve in the message after it has come to them… And indeed, it is a mighty Book. Falsehood cannot approach it from before it or from behind it; [it is] a revelation from a [Lord who is] Wise and Praiseworthy. (Fussilat: 41-42)

And it was not [possible] for this Qur’an to be produced by other than Allah, but [it is] a confirmation of what was before it and a detailed explanation of the [former] Scripture, about which there is no doubt, from the Lord of the worlds. (Yunas: 37)

The Day of Judgement (Qiyama)_____________________________

A Muslim believes in the Day of the Judgement. This world as we know it will come to an end, and the dead will rise to stand for their final and fair trial. On that day, all men and women from Adam to the last person will be resurrected from the state of death for judgement. Everything we do, say, make, intend and think are accounted for and kept in accurate records. They are brought up on the Day of Judgement.

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

That Day, the people will depart separated [into categories] to be shown [the result of] their deeds. So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it, And whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it. (az-Zalzalah :6-8)

One who believes in life after death is not expected to behave against the Will of Allah. He will always bear in mind that Allah is watching all his actions and the angels are recording them.
People with good records will be generously rewarded and warmly welcomed to Allah’s Jannah (Paradise). People with bad records will be fairly punished and cast into Jahanum (Hell-Fire). The real nature of Jannah (Paradise) and Jahanum (Hell-Fire) are known to Allah only, but they are described by Allah in man’s familiar terms in the Qur’an.

The Day they will emerge from the graves rapidly as if they were, toward an erected idol, hastening. (al-Ma`raij: 43)

And they say, “When we are bones and crumbled particles, will we [truly] be resurrected as a new creation?” (al-‘Isra’: 49)

And he presents for Us an example and forgets his [own] creation. He says, “Who will give life to bones while they are disintegrated?” (Ya-Sin: 78)

That Day, everyone will follow [the call of] the Caller [with] no deviation therefrom, and [all] voices will be stilled before the Most Merciful, so you will not hear except a whisper [of footsteps]. (Taha: 108)

If some good deeds are seen not to get full appreciation and credit in this life, they will receive full compensation and be widely acknowledged on the Day of Judgement. Allah says:

Indeed, Allah does not do injustice, [even] as much as an atom’s weight; while if there is a good deed, He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward. (an-Nisa’: 40)

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If some people who commit sins, neglect Allah and indulge in immoral activities, seem superficially successful and prosperous in this life, absolute justice will be done to them on the Day of Judgement. The time of the Day of Judgement is only known to Allah and Allah alone.

Qadaa and Qadar__________________________________________

The last pillar of Iman (Faith) is the belief in pre-ordainment. What this means is that everything in our lives is already written. It is our duty to know that whatever Allah wills will occur. Also He is the creator of everything including our deeds. Allah knows our past, present, and future. Our lives are set, but that does not mean that we strive any less toward perfection.

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

Do you not know that Allah knows what is in the heaven and earth? Indeed, that is in a Record. Indeed that, for Allah , is easy. (al-Haj: 70)

A Muslim believes in Allah’s predestination of all things and events (Qadaa), His decree (Qadar), His wisdom in His actions, and His will. Nothing in the universe can occur, even the voluntary actions of His slaves, except after Allah’s knowledge, and His decree of that event.

A Muslim further believes that Allah is Just in His predestination and His decree, Wise in all of His actions. His wisdom follows His will: Whatever He wills is, and whatever He does not will is not. There is neither power nor any movement except by Allah.

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says in the Qur’an:

Indeed, all things We created with predestination. (al-Qamar: 49)

And there is not a thing but that with Us are its depositories, and We do not send it down except according to a known measure. (al-Hijr: 21)

No disaster strikes upon the earth or among yourselves except that it is in a register before We bring it into being – indeed that, for Allah , is easy (al-Hadid: 22)

No disaster strikes except by permission of Allah . And whoever believes in Allah – He will guide his heart. And Allah is Knowing of all things. (at-Taghabun: 11)

And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what is on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there within the darknesses of the earth and no moist or dry [thing] but that it is [written] in a clear record. (al-‘An’am: 59)

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The sun will come down toward the people on the day of Qiyama until it is only about a mile up. The people will be in their own perspiration according to their acts: some of them will be in it up to their ankles, some up to their groin and others

up to their chins, and he pointed to his mouth.” (Muslim)

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________________Obligation of following the Salaf as-Salih

Firstly, from the Noble Qur’an___________________________________________________

Allah (ta’ala) says:

And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct – Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment. (at-Tawbah: 100)

Through this we extract and understand that Allah (ta’ala) is unreservedly pleased with the Muhajirun and Ansar and is pleased with those who follow them in righteousness.

The Companions [Muhajirun and Ansar] have already attained Allah’s pleasure and it is secure, whereas for those who come after them; this is not guaranteed, as it is dependent upon their adherence to the way of the Companions in righteousness.

Allah (ta’ala) also says:

And whoever opposes the Messenger after guidance has become clear to him and follows other than the way of the believers – We will give him what he has taken and drive him into Hell, and evil it is as a destination. (an-Nisa’: 115)

Allah has clearly and openly threatened those who follow a different path to the Companions with the punishment of Hell, and in the previous ayah, He promises His pleasure to those who follow them.

Secondly, from the Sunnah_____________________________________________________

1. The statement of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): “The best of people are my generation, then those who succeed them, then those who succeed them” (Bukhari & Muslim)

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) chose the companions to be the companions of the greatest man to walk the face of the Earth, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), the Prophet is telling you who the best generation is, this is an indication of their preference, precedence and majestic rank as well as their knowledge of Allah’s laws and intense adherence to the way of His Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him).

2. The Messenger’s statement: “The Jews split up into seventy-one sects, the Christians split up into seventy-two sects and this Ummah will split up into seventy-three sects; all of them are in the Fire except one.” Someone asked: “Which is that one O Messenger of Allah?” He replied: “Whoever is upon that which I am upon today and my Companions.” (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Imam Ahmad, Ibn Majah)

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3. His saying: “…for indeed, those who will still be alive after me will see many differences; so hold fast to my Sunnah and to the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khalifahs after me. Adhere to and cling tightly to it and beware of newly-invented matters (in religion), for every newly- invented matter is an innovation and every innovation (in religion) is a deviation.” (Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Darimi)

This is a warning to you that there will come a time where there will be appearances of splits and differences; the Prophet is telling his Ummah to stick to his Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khalifahs after him.

Thirdly, from the statements of the Salaf as-Salih and their followers__________________

  1. Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud, (may Allah be pleased with him), said: “People will not cease to be in good as long as knowledge emanating from the Companions of Muhammad and their elders reach them. If however, knowledge comes to them by way of their young and their desires diversify, they will be ruined” (AI-Zuhd of Ibn al-Mubarak, p. 281 narration number 815.)
  2. He also said: “Whoever amongst you seeks to adopt a path, should take to the way of the dead, since the living are not safe and secure from being put to trial. They, the Companions of Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), possessed the most pious hearts of this Ummah, were the most profound in knowledge and the least constraint of this Ummah. A people whom Allah chose for the companionship of Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and the establishment of His religion. So know their rights and adhere to their guidance, for they indeed were upon the straightway” (jami Bayan al-‘ Ilm wa Fadhh, 2/97.)
  3. He also said: “We emulate and do not set precents, we follow and do not innovate and we will not deviate as long as we hold onto the narrations”. (Sharh Usul Itiqad Ahl al-Sunnah of al-Lalaka’I, narration number 115.)
  4. He also said: “Follow and do not innovate, for indeed you have been sufficed”. (Al Bid wa al Nahy anha of ibn Waddah pg. 13.)
  5. Hudhayfah Ibn al-Yaman, (may Allah be pleased with him), said: “O assembly of reciters! Remain upright and take to the way of those before you. For by Allah, if you (choose to) follow them then know that you have been outstripped by a long distance, and if you take to the right or left (of their path) then you will be upon severe deviation.” (Jami’ Bayan al-‘Ilm, 2/29)
  6. Mujahid (The Great Muffasir Tabi’)said: “The scholars are the Companions of Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him).” (Jami’ Bayan al-‘Ilm, 2/29)
  7. Al-Awza’I said: “Knowledge is that which emanates from the Companions of Muhammad as for anything else besides this, it is not knowledge.” Imam Ahmad also said this. (Jami’ Bayan al-‘Ilm, 2/29)

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  1. Al-Awza’i also said: “Patiently restrict yourself upon the Sunnah, stop where the people (the Companions) stopped, say what they say and refrain from that which they refrained. Traverse upon the path of your Salaf as-Salih, for indeed what was sufficient for them is sufficient for you.” (Al Shari’ah of al-Ajurri, pg. 58.)
  2. Al-Hasan al-Basri was in a gathering when he mentioned the Companions of Muhammad. He then remarked: “They possessed the most pious hearts of this Ummah, were the most profound in knowledge and the least constraint. A people, whom Allah chose for the companionship of His Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), so emulate their character and way, for by the Lord of the Ka’bah, they are upon the straight path”. (Jami Bayan al-‘Ilm 2/97)
  3. Imam Abu Hanifah (may Allah have mercy upon him), was questioned: “What is your comment on the speech innovated by the people regarding al-A’rad and al-Ajsam?” He replied: “Statements of the philosophers! Take to the narrations and the way of the Salaf and beware of every newly-invented matter (in religion) for it is indeed an innovation”. (Sawn al-Mantiq of al-Suyuti, 322.)
  4. Al-Awza’ i said: “Hold fast to the narrations of the Salaf even if people abandon you. Beware of the opinions of men, no matter how much they beautify it with their speech, for indeed the matter will become manifest whilst you will be upon the correct straight path concerning it”. (Al-Madknai ila al-Satan of al-Bayhaqi, number 233.)
  5. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “It is a must upon every Muslim, who testifies that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, that his basic intention be to single out Allah in his worship of Him alone, without any partner and to obey His Messenger. He is to remain upon this, following it wherever he finds it, and he should know that the best of creation after the Prophets are the Companions.

    He should not therefore, offer absolute and unrestricted allegiance to any one person except the Messenger of Allah. Nor should he offer absolute and unrestricted allegiance to any one group except the Companions; as the Guidance remains with the Messenger, wherever he remains, and it remains with his Companions and no one else’s companions, wherever they remain. (Minhaj al-Sunnah 5/262-263)

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________________________________Taharah (Purification)

Islam is a religion of purification. It purifies the body from filth; it purifies the mind from misconceptions, confusion and all that is counter to reason; and it purifies the soul from all evil inclinations.

Besides, Islam is about balance and moderation, and it does not aim to elevate any one of the elements of which the human was created at the expense of another of those elements. It seeks to unite one’s exterior and interior in complete harmony and uniformity, without creating any conflict between the two. It asserts that they are reflections of each other, and that it is not possible that one will be corrupt while the other continues to be virtuous and correct.

There are three types of purification:

  1. Purification of the body: cleansing the body from all physical filth.
  2. Ritual purification: attaining, through certain acts, a special state of purity that allows one to

    perform certain acts of worship.

  3. Spiritual purification: cleansing the soul and mind from the diseases that afflict them, and

    instilling in them good qualities. The ultimate objective of this type is sincere devotion to Allah (subhanahu ta’ala).

Purification is equal to half of the faith, Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said in this regard:

“Cleanliness is half of Faith; the utterance of Allah (Al-hamdu lillah – all praise belongs to Allah) fills the scales of good actions; the utterance of Allah (Glory be to Allah and all praise belongs to Allah) fills the space between the heavens and the earth, and Salaat (prayer) is light; and charity is the proof of Faith; and endurance is a light, and the Qur’an is a plea in your favour or against you. Every person begins the morning ready to strike a deal with his soul as a stake; he either ransoms it or puts it into perdition.” (Muslim)

Purification is one of the ways one can please Allah and earn His love, Allah says,

Indeed, Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those who purify themselves. (al-Baqarah: 222)

The following verse was revealed concerning the people of Quba: Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who purify themselves. (at-Tawbah: 108) (Abu Dawud & Tirmidhi)

It is one of the qualities of believers because it is a type of worship seen only by Allah. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“Be straightforward, which is hardly possible for you. You should know that prayer is one of the best of your acts. Only a believer keeps observing wudoo (ablution)” (Ibn Majah, ad-Darimi, Bayhaqi)

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_____________________________Wudoo (Minor Ablution)

Wudoo is the prescribed washing and wiping of certain parts of the body to achieve ritual purity. Linguistically, it means radiance and beauty, for it causes the one who performs it to have spiritual beauty in this life, and both spiritual and physical beauty in the hereafter. The reward of wudoo is great, Allah’s Messenger said:

“When a servant makes Wudoo and washes his mouth, the sins committed by his mouth are washed out. When he cleans his nose, the sins are cleansed from his nose. When he washed his hands, the sins of his face are washed off, even from under the eyelids. When he washes his hands, the sins of his hands are washed off, even from beneath the nails of his hands. When he wipes his head, the sins from his head come off, even from his ears. When he washes his feet, the sins of his feet are washed off, even from under his toe nails. Then his walking to the Masjid and prayers are rewarded separately. (Nasaai, Ibn Majah, Haakim, Bukhari, Muslim)

Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) said, I saw the Prophet of Allah make Wudoo the way I made wudoo and then He said, ‘Whoever makes Wudoo like this, his previous sins (minor) will be forgiven and his Salaat and walking to the Masjid will be rewarded separately.’ (Muslim & Nasaai)

Wudoo is a condition for the validity of the Prayer, whether it is an obligatory prayer or optional prayer, importance of correct Wudoo is stated in the hadith:

“No Prayer is accepted without purification, and no charity is accepted from earnings made from impermissible sources.” (Muslim)

A Description of a Complete Wudoo__________________________

Wudoo and other acts of worship are not valid unless one makes the intention (niyyah). That is because of the statement of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him):

“Verily deeds are judged by the intentions [behind them], and verily every person will have [the reward of] what he intended.” (Bukhari)

Then he says: Bismillah (in the name of Allah), And washes his hands three times,

Then he rinses his mouth and nostrils three times, combining both with one handful of water or three

Then he washes his face three times from the hairline down to the bottom of the jaws and chin, and from one ear across to the other ear; and he runs his wet fingers through his beard if it is abundant, but if it is showing the skin underneath, he should wash it.

Then he washes his forearms to the elbows three times, including the elbows in the washing.

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Then he wipes his head, including the ears starting with his hands at the forelock and wiping to the nape of the neck and back to the forelock.

Then he washes his feet to the ankles three times, including the ankles in washing, and he washes the inner parts of his toes.

Then he looks to the heavens and says: Ash-hadu al-la ilaha illa Allahu wahdahu la shareeka lahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluh (I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship other than Allah, One without partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger).

Minimum Mandatory Actions of Wudoo________________________

Among these acts, the mandatory ones are:

  1. 1)  The intention
  2. 2)  Washing each part once, except for the hands
  3. 3)  Wiping over the entire head once
  4. 4)  Doing all this in the sequence we mentioned
  5. 5)  He should not delay the washing of any part such as the part prior to it becomes dry.

Recommended (Sunnah) Acts of Wudoo_______________________

The Sunnah (preferable) acts are:

  1. 1)  Mentioning the name of Allah
  2. 2)  Washing the two hands
  3. 3)  Perfecting the rinsing of the mouth and nostrils by letting the water reach as far around and

    back as possible, unless one is fasting

  4. 4)  Running the wet fingers through the beard and the inner parts of the fingers and toes
  5. 5)  Wiping the ears
  6. 6)  Beginning with the right parts before the left
  7. 7)  Washing three times; more than that is disliked and is a waste of water.

In regards to oral hygiene, it is recommended to clean the teeth when (the taste or odour of) the mouth has changed, upon rising from sleep, and before prayers, because of the statement of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him):

Were it not (for the fear) of overburdening my Ummah, I would have ordered them to (brush their teeth with) Siwaak at every Salaat. (Muslim)

Siwaak or Miswaak is a natural tooth brush prepared from the roots or branches of various trees and bushes. The most common and beneficial is that of the root of the Salvadora Persica, a wild desert plant known in Arabic as Arak, and in Urdu as Peelu.

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Wiping over Socks_________________________________________

It is permissible to wipe over leather socks and whatever resembles them, like thick socks that stay on the feet and shoes that reach above the anklebones. This is in the case of the minor ablution.

Wiping is done over the top. Not the bottom of the sock or shoe, Al-Mugheerah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah wipe over the top of his socks.” (Tirmidhi)

Ibn Al-Mugheerah narrated from his father (may Allah be pleased with them) that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) “Wiped over his leather socks and over his forelock and turban.” (Muslim)

In another report, he said: “The Messenger of Allah wiped over the socks and sandals.” (Muslim) Must have been put on while having Complete Wudoo___________

A condition of the validity of wiping over all such things is to have put them on (that part of the body which will be wiped over) while in a state of complete purity.

This is because the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said to al-Mugheerah (may Allah be pleased with him), when he attempted to take off the Prophet’s leather socks: “Leave them, for I put them on while in a state of purity” – and he wiped over them. (Muslim)

Duration of the Wiping Period_______________________________

“The Messenger of Allah specified (the upper limit) of three days and three nights for a traveller and one day and one night for the resident.” (Muslim)

Removal of the Sock or Turban_______________________________

Removing the sock or turban does not invalidate the state of purity, al-Hassan said “If one cuts his hair or clips his nails or takes off his leather socks, there is no wudoo due on him.” (Bukhari)

Wiping over Bandages______________________________________

It is permissible to wipe over a bandage (this includes adhesive bandage strips like Band-Aids), as long as he did not when putting it on exceed the part that needs to be wrapped, for example for a small cut on his arm, he would wrap the cut not the entire arm. He can wipe over it until he removes it.

For Women______________________________________________

The man and woman are equal in Wudoo except that the woman may not wipe over the turban as it is forbidden for her to wear one, however the woman may wipe over the headscarf Ibn Abi Shaybah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported from Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her): “…that she used to wipe over the head covering.”

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Nullifiers of Wudoo________________________________________

  1. Anything which passes out of the two passages (respective private parts of female and male), such as urine, faeces [pus, or blood].
  2. Passing gas/wind (flatulence)
  3. Loss of intellect (deep sleep in which one loses all perception), except for light sleep while

    standing or sitting.

  4. Touching private parts with lustful desire
  5. Apostasy from Islam
  6. Eating camel’s meat

In Cases of Doubt__________________________________________

If a person who had performed wudoo is in doubt whether he had done something to invalidate his wudoo, his wudoo is not considered invalid until he becomes certain that he had done something to invalidate it. There is no difference whether one is praying or not praying.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“If a person feels something in his stomach, and he does not know whether he passed gas or not, he should not leave the masjid until he hears a sound or finds an odour.” (Muslim)

Certainty cannot be changed by doubt unless there is certainty in the doubt, if you have done wudoo, and you think you have nullified it but are not completely 100% sure then you are still on wudoo.

When Wudoo is Recommended______________________________

Before going to sleep, the Prophet Muhammad (may peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“Whenever you go to bed, perform wudoo ́ as you would for the Prayer, then lie on your right side and say:

‘Allahumma aslamtu wajhi ilayk, wa fawwadtu amri ilayk, wa alja ́tu dhahri ilayk, raghbatan wa rahbatan ilayk, la malja ́a wala manjaa minka illaa ilayk.Allahumma aamantu bi kitabik-alladhi anzalt, wa binabiyik-alladhi arsalt.’

‘O Allah! I surrender to You and entrust all my affairs to You, and depend upon You for blessings, both with hope and fear of You. There is no fleeing from You, and there is no place of protection and safety except with You. O Allah! I believe in Your Book (the Qur’an) which You have revealed, and in Your Prophet (Muhammad) whom you have sent.’

If you die on that very night, you will die on the religion of the true and pure nature (i.e. Islam). Let these words be the last thing you say [before you sleep].” So I repeated these words to the Prophet and when I reached: “O Allah! I believe in Your Book (the Qur’an) which You have revealed,” I said:

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“…and in Your Messenger,” upon which He (Prophet Muhammad) corrected, ”No, ‘and in Your Prophet whom you have sent.’” (Bukhari)

If one is in a major state of impurity (janabah) due to sexual intercourse, and wishes to eat drink or sleep, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir said:

“The Messenger of Allah gave the person in a state of janabah the concession to perform wudoo like the one he would do for Prayer, if he wished to eat, drink or sleep” (Tirmidhi)

Also, it is recommended to perform wudoo if one in a state of janabah and wishes to have intercourse again, due to the saying of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him):

“If one of you has intercourse with his wife and then intends to do so again, let him perform wudoo [before doing so].” (Muslim)

Upon performing the ritual bath (ghusl) for jabanah (state of major impurity), menstruation or postpartum bleeding, the Mother of the Believers, Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported:

“When performing ghusl, the Messenger of Allah would first wash his hands, then use his right hand to pour water over his left hand and wash his private parts, and then perform wudoo as one does for Prayer. He would then take water and put his fingers into the roots of his hair. When he deemed that the water had reached his entire scalp, he would pour three handfuls of water over his head, and then pour water over the rest of his body, and [lastly] he would wash his feet.” (Muslim)

Renewing one’s wudoo before each prayer

“Had it not been difficult upon people, I would have ordered them to perform wudoo for each Prayer, and to use siwaak with each wudoo.” (Bayhaqi)

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________Purification from Major States of Impurity (Ghusl)

Ghusl means to wash the whole body with water. It becomes obligatory after one of the following actions:

  •   Ejaculation of semen due to desire, for example sexual intercourse, masturbation, fantasizing, nocturnal emission (known as ‘wet dream’) and other similar reasons. This is based on the saying of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala):

    And if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves. (al-Ma’idah: 6)

  •   Sexual intercourse, if the private parts meet, even if no ejaculation takes place, both spouses are required to perform ghusl. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

    “If he (the husband) positions himself between her (wife’s) legs and arms and penetrates her, ghusl becomes obligatory, whether he ejaculates or not.” (Muslim)

     Following menstruation or postpartum bleedings, Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says:

    And they ask you about menstruation. Say, “It is harm, so keep away from wives during menstruation. And do not approach them until they are pure. And when they have purified themselves, then come to them from where Allah has ordained for you. Indeed, Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those who purify themselves.”

    (al-Baqarah: 222)

    A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported that Fatimah bint Abi Hubaysh (may Allah be pleased with her) asked the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him):

    “I experience vaginal bleedings [other than menses] and it does not stop, should I leave the Prayer?” He replied, ‘No. That is just a vein. Leave the Prayer on those days in which you experience menstruation, then perform ghusl and pray.” (Bukhari)

 Death, When a Muslim dies, Muslims are required to bathe him, Umm ‘Attiyah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated:

“Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) came to us when his daughter died and said: ‘Wash her three times, five times or more than that if you see fit, and do so with water and Sidr (lote-tree leaves). At the end, sprinkle camphor or something of it on her, and when you finish, inform me.’ When we were finished, we informed him, then he gave us his waist-sheet and said, ‘Shroud her in it.’” (Bukhari)

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A Description of a Complete Ghusl____________________________

The Intention (Niyyah), is needed, one must intend in his heart that he is performing ghusl to remove himself from the major state of impurity – whether janabah, menstruation or postpartum bleedings – without uttering such intention vocally.

Mentioning the Name of Allah, one should say, “Bismillah”
He should wash his hands, and then wash his private parts to remove the filth.

Next, he should perform a complete wudoo as he would for the Prayer. He may delay washing his feet until the end of his ghusl.

He should pour at least three handfuls of water on his head, running his finger through his hair and beard so that water reaches the roots of his hair and scalp.

Then he should pour water over the rest of his body, rubbing it, beginning with the right side and then the left. He should take care that water reaches his armpits, ears, and navel and in between the folds of the skin if he is fat, for these folds of flesh which form in the obese prevent water from reaching the areas of skin concealed within the folds and may remain dry. He should then wash his feet if he had not already done so while making wudoo [before performing the ghusl]. ‘Ai`shah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported:

“When Allah’s Messenger would perform ghusl due to sexual intercourse, he would first wash his hands, and then pour water with his right hand into his left, washing his private parts. After that he would perform wudoo as he would for the Prayer, and then take water and rub it into the roots of his hair with his fingers. [Lastly] he would wash his feet.” (Muslim)

Maymoonah said,

“I placed water for the Prophet to perform ghusl. He poured them on his hands and washed them twice or thrice, and then poured water with his right hand into his left and washed his private parts. Afterwards, he wiped his hands on the earth and then rinsed his mouth and nose. He washed his face, his two hands, and then washed his head thrice. Afterwards, he poured water over his body. Then he shifted from that place and washed his feet.” (Bukhari)

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Minimum Mandatory Acts for a Valid Ghusl_____________________

  •   Intention
  •   Washing the entire body , Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says,

    O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying or in a state of janabah, except those passing through [a place of prayer], until you have washed [your whole body] (an-Nisa: 43)

    This includes cleaning the private parts, pouring three handfuls of water over his head until it reaches the roots of his hair and scalp, armpits, ears, navel and between the folds of skin, this can all be done by submerging the body completely in water.

  •   Rinsing the mouth and the nostrils
    Cases in which Ghusl is Recommended_________________________

    When a disbeliever enters the fold of Islam (becomes Muslim), it is recommended that he performs ghusl, Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

    “When Thumamah al-Hanafi accepted Islam, the Messenger of Allah sent him to the walled garden of Abu Talhah and ordered him to perform ghusl, so he performed ghusl and prayed a two rak’ah prayer. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) then said, ‘Your brother’s Islam is sincere.’ “(Ibn Khuzaymah)

    The Friday Prayer (Jumuah): The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

    “It is obligatory upon every Muslim that he performs ghusl, clean his teeth and perfume himself on Friday if he has some.” (Ahmad)

    The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

    “Whoever performs ghusl and then proceeds to the Jumu’ah prayer and prays what was written for him, keeps silent and listens to the Imam until he finishes his sermon (khutbah) and then prays with him, the sins he committed between that Friday and the next will be forgiven, as well as three additional days.” (Muslim)

    The Prayer of the two Eids (Fitr and Adha), and the Day of ‘Arafaat, this is due to the hadith narrated by Al-Fakih ibn Sa’d:

    “The Prophet would perform ghusl on Friday, the Day of Fitr and the day of Sacrifice (Adha).” (Ahmad)

    Entering the state of Ihram (the state in which a pilgrim enters when performing Hajj or Umrah in which he is prohibited to do certain things) for Hajj or Umrah, Khaarijah ibn Zaid reported from his father

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“The Prophet took off his clothes and took a bath for Ihram.” (Ibn Khuzaymah)

Entering Makkah,

Whenever Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with both of them) wanted to enter Makkah, he would refrain from making the talbiyyah (a supplication repeated by a pilgrim after making his intention for entering the state of ihram), He would spend the night at Dhu Tuwaa pray the Fajr prayer, and then perform bath. He would say that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) did the same. (Bukhari)

Things which are Forbidden for Those in a State of Janabah________

The Prayer: Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said:

O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying or in a state of janabah, except those passing through [a place of prayer], until you have washed [your whole body] (an-Nisa: 43)

Tawaf (Circumambulation) of the Sacred House (Ka’bah) Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said:

“I came to Makkah while I was menstruating, so I was not able to make Tawaf of the Sacred House or Sa’i (walking between the two mounts of Safa and Marwah during ‘Umrah or Hajj) between Safa and Marwah. I complained to Allah’s Messenger. He said to me: ‘Do everything a pilgrim does except for Tawaf of the Sacred House until you are pure.’ “(Bukhari)

Touching or carrying the Mus-haf (Qur’an) as stated in the hadith of Abu bakr ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Amr

“The Prophet wrote a letter to the people of Yemen, and from the things it read was: ‘Nobody should touch the Qur’an unless he is pure.’ “(Hakim)

Recitation of the Qur’an, Once Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) performed wudoo: he rinsed his mouth and nose thrice, washed his face thrice, washed his hands and arms twice then wiped his head once and washed his feet thrice. He said, ‘This is how I saw the Messenger of Allah perform the wudoo.’ He recited some verses of the Qur’an and then said, ‘This is for those who are not in a state of Janabah. As for those in a state of Janabah, they should not recite even a verse.’” (Ahmad)

Remaining in the Masjid, Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrates:

“The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) came and [saw] that the doors of the houses of his companions were faced towards, and opened into the masjid. He said, ‘Face these houses away from the masjid.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) entered, and the people did not do anything in hope that he would give them a concession in this regard. He came out again] and said, ‘Turn these houses away from the masjid, for indeed I do not permit the masjid for a menstruating woman or one in a state of janabah.’” (Ibn Khuzaymah)

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____________________________Tayammum (Dry Ablution)

Tayammum is a purification that replaces wudoo and ghusl due to a lack of water or other factors which may prevent water being used. Tayammum makes permissible for us the same acts as does wudoo and ghusl, such as Prayer, touching the Qur’an and the like. Allah ta’ala says:

O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying or in a state of janabah, except those passing through [a place of prayer], until you have washed [your whole body]. And if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and find no water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and your hands [with it]. Indeed, Allah is ever Pardoning and Forgiving. (an-Nisa’: 43)

It is also something specifically given to the Ummah (Nation) Of Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“I have been favoured over the other prophets with six things: I have been given ‘inclusive speech’, I have been given victory through fear, war-booty has been made permissible for me, the earth has been made pure for me and a place of prayer, I have been granted all good morals and manners, and I am the seal of the Prophets (the final Prophet).” (Muslim)

Description of Tayammum___________________________________

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“…The earth was made a place of prayer for me and a source of purification, so when the time of prayer comes for anyone among my Ummah, let him pray.” (Bukhari & Muslim)

Also in another report by Ahmad and Tabarani:

“…The earth was made a place of prayer for me and a source of purification, so when the time of prayer comes for anyone among my Ummah, let him pray, he will have by him his masjid (a place of prostration, usually referring to a mosque) and means of purification.”

The description of Tayammum is to strike the wholesome surface of the Earth once with his two hands, and then wipe his face and hands (up to the wrists) with them, this is based on the saying of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) to ‘Ammar (may Allah be pleased with him):

“It would have been enough for you to do like this,” and he struck the earth with his hands and wiped his face and two hands (up to the wrists).” (Muslim)

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Conditions of Tayammum___________________________________

It has four conditions:
First: Inability to Use Water

  •   Shortage of water
  •   Fear of harm if one uses it, due to sickness or severe cold
  •   Fear that he, his companions or his beast may suffer from thirst
  •   If the search for water will risk his life, honour or wealth, for example if there was an enemy or if the searching would expose him to the danger of wild animals.
  •   If it cannot be obtained except at an expensive price. Second: Commencement of the Prayer Time

    One should not make tayammum for a mandatory prayer before its time, or for a recommended prayer during the time of its prohibition.

    Third: Intention

    If one made tayammum for a recommended prayer (Nawafil/Sunnah), he must not pray a mandatory prayer with it. If he made tayammum for a mandatory prayer, he can perform it and other mandatory and recommended prayers until its time is completed.

    Fourth: Soil
    One may not use other than wholesome soil that has particles of dust.

    What invalidates Tayammum? _______________________________

    What invalidates the wet ablution (wudoo) invalidates the tayammum. The other invalidators are the ending of the prayer time, when the factors which prevent one from using water cease to exist, and the ability to use water, even if he was in prayer.

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Important Notes on Tayammum_____________________________

If a person performs tayammum and prays, and then finds water, or if the factors which prevented the use of water cease to exist after completion of the Prayer, it is not required for him to repeat that Prayer even if there is still time. Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri said:

“Two men set out on a journey. When the time for Prayer came, they had no water, so they performed tayammum and prayed. Later, they found water within that prayer time, so one of them performed wudoo’ and repeated that prayer while the other did not. When they met Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) and informed him of what occurred, he said to the one which did not repeat [the prayer], ‘You have done the Sunnah and your prayer is valid,’ while he said to the one who performed wudoo’ and repeated [the Prayer], ‘You have a double reward.’” (Hakim)

If one finds water, of if the factors which prevented the use of water cease to exist while he is in the act of praying, his wudoo’ becomes invalid, and he is required to perform wudoo’. Abu Dharr (may Allah be pleased with him) came to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) while he was in a state of Janabah (major impurity). The Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) called him to bring water, and he concealed himself and performed ghusl. He then said to him,

“Clean earth is the wudoo’ for a Muslim even if he does not find water for ten years. But when he finds water, let him wet his body, for that is what is better.” (Ahmad)

A person who performs tayammum in a case of major states of impurity – such as janabah, menstruation, postpartum bleedings, for some acceptable reason which justifies tayammum is not required to repeat his Prayer. But upon finding water, or when the factors which prevented the use of water cease to exist, he must perform ghusl to purify himself from this state of impurity. ‘Imran ibn al-Hussain (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing be upon him) saw a man sitting alone not performing the Prayer in congregation. He asked him, ‘O so-and-so, what has prevented you from praying in congregation?’ He replied, ‘I am junub (in a state of major impurity) and I have no water.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘you must use the earth [and perform tayammum] for it is sufficient. Imran then said, after they had found water, Allah’s Messenger gave the man a container of water and said: “Go and pour it over yourself.” (Bukhari)

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______________________________________Prayer (Salaat)

The prayer is the second pillar of Islam after the testimony of faith. Linguistically it means a connection. It is a chance for the servants to pull themselves out of the spinning machine of this life to reinforce their relationship with their Creator, to water the tree of their faith and to moisten their souls, which would otherwise be drying out and cracking in the desert of this never-ending pursuit of Dunya (worldly life). For the soul, praying is like turning to the shade of a tree in the middle of work on a hot day. It is a chance to rejuvenate spiritually; a reminder of our origin, our Creator and the cause of our existence. If it is done with devotion, it will be our greatest deterrent from wrongdoing and aggression, Allah ta’ala says:

Verily, in the Remembrance of Allah do hearts find rest (ar-Ra’d: 28)

There are five mandatory prayers: Fajr, Dhuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, ‘Isha

Virtues of Salaat___________________________________________

Salaat has the following virtues:

  1. It is the foremost obligation after the declaration of faith.
  2. It was given to the Prophet directly by Allah without any intermediaries.
  3. It was given to the Prophet on the greatest night ever experienced (Al Isra), where

    he met Prophets Idris, Esa, Musa, Ibrahim.

  4. It was given over to the Muslims at the highest point that any human can ever reach.
  5. It was obligated as fifty prayers and then later reduced to five prayers, with the

    reward of fifty remaining. The reward of fifty was kept to signify how great this

    action is to Allah.

  6. It is the only daily continual act of worship we have, despite whatever condition or

    situation we are in, i.e. whether we are ill, in battle, travelling, etc.

  7. It is the best of actions.
  8. It is the first thing that the servant of Allah will be judged upon on the Day of Judgment.
  9. It has been given its own public call each time: the Adhan.
  10. It is the defining characteristic of the Muslim. Its abandonment leads a person to

    shirk and kufr.

  11. It expiates our sins. The minor sins committed between each prayer are cleansed at

    the next prayer.

  12. One becomes closer to Allah, conversing with one’s Lord.
  13. The soul is strengthened and ascends to the Heavenly Realm away from the harms

    of the Dunya.

  14. It is a relaxation, the entire Salaat is based on a single word
  15. It takes away stress and hardship
  16. It provides physical and spiritual training and discipline – it preserves from profanity

    and sins

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__________________________________Adhan and Iqamah

The Beauty of the Adhan (First Call to Prayer)___________________

In Fiqh us-Sunnah, Sayyid Sabiq (may Allah have mercy on him) quotes the following from the great muffasir Imam al-Qurtubi (may Allah have mercy on him) and others:

“Al-Qurtubi and others have said that the adhan, though it has very few words, covers all essentials of the faith.It begins by proclaiming the greatness of Allah, and that includes His existence and perfection. It mentions second to that His oneness and then the denial of polytheism, and it confirms the messengership of Muhammad (blessings and peace be upon him) and then it invites to specific acts of obedience after testifying to Muhammad’s messengership, for they [those deeds] are not known except through the Messenger. And then, it calls to prosperity which is eternity in paradise and it points to the return to Allah. Then, for emphasis, some repetitions are made.”

Virtues of Adhan__________________________________________

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “When the Adhan is pronounced Satan takes to his heels and passes wind with noise during his flight in order not to hear the Adhan. When the Adhan is completed he comes back and again takes to his heels when the Iqama is pronounced and after its completion he returns again till he whispers into the heart of the person (to divert his attention from his prayer) and makes him remember things which he does not recall to his mind before the prayer and that causes him to forget how much he has prayed.” (Bukhari)

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him)said, “If the people knew the reward for pronouncing the Adhan and for standing in the first row (in congregational prayers) and found no other way to get that except by drawing lots they would draw lots, and if they knew the reward of the Dhuhr prayer (in the early moments of its stated time) they would race for it (go early) and if they knew the reward of ‘Isha’ and Fajr (morning) prayers in congregation, they would come to offer them even if they had to crawl.” (Bukhari)

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Allah and His angels pray upon those in the first rows, and the caller to prayer is forgiven, for as far as his voice reaches and whatever hears him will confirm what he says. He will get a reward similar to all of those who pray with him.” (Abu Dawud & Ahmad)

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Description of Adhan and Iqamah_____________________________ The Adhan_______________________________________________

The first call to prayer contains fifteen unique words:

  • –  Allahu Akbar = Allah is the Greatest (said four times).
  • –  Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa Allah = I bear witness that there is No God worthy of worship except

    Allah (said twice).

  • –  Ash-hadu anna Muhammadur-Rasool Ullah = I bear witness that Muhammad is the

    Messenger of Allah (said twice).

  • –  Hayya ‘alas-Salaah = Hurry (or rise up) to the prayer (said twice).
  • –  Hayya ‘alal-falah = Hurry to success (or rise up for salvation) (said twice).
  • –  Allahu Akbar = Allah is the Greatest (said twice).
  • –  La ilaha illa Allah = There is none worthy of worship except Allah (said once).

    For the Dawn (fajr) prayer, the following phrase is also said after Hayya ‘alal-falah:

– As-salaatu khayrum-minan-nawm = Prayer is better than sleep (said twice).

The Iqamah_______________________________________________

The second call to initiate the prayer contains eleven unique words.

  • –  Allahu Akbar = Allah is the Greatest (said twice).
  • –  Ash-hadu an la ilaha illa Allah = I bear witness that there is No God worthy of worship except

    Allah (said one time).

  • –  Ash-hadu anna Muhammadur-Rasool Ullah = I bear witness that Muhammad is the

    Messenger of Allah (said one time).

  • –  Hayya ‘alas-Salaah = Hurry (or rise up) to the prayer (said once).
  • –  Hayya ‘alal-falah = Hurry to success (or rise up for salvation) (said once).
  • –  Allahu Akbar = Allah is the Greatest (said twice).
  • –  La ilaha illa Allah = There is none worthy of worship except Allah (said once).

    The caller to prayer (mu’adh-dhin) should be honest, with a good and loud voice, and should be knowledgeable about the times [of prayers].

    It is recommended that he makes the adhan while standing, in a state of wudoo’, and on a high place, facing the qiblah.

    When he reaches haya ‘alas-Salaah he should lean to the right without moving his feet and when he reaches haya ‘alal-Falah he should lean to the left without moving his feet.

    He should put his index fingers in his ears while making adhan, he should recite the adhan slowly and the iqamah quickly. It is recommended for those who hear the mu’adh-dhin to repeat what he says, for the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “If you hear the call [to prayer], say what he says (except for the Hay’alah, he should say La Hawla wa la Quwatta ila Billah).”

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Conditions of the Prayer____________________________________ Pre-requisites for obligating Salaat____________________________

  1. Islam
  2. Puberty
  3. Sound mind

Conditions for Salaat_______________________________________

  1. To be performed after the time has certainly started
  2. Purification from minor and major ritual impurities. A little bit of blood loss is no

    problem.

  3. Removal of physical filth (impurities) from the body and the place of worship
  4. Covering the Awrah – this means the parts of the body that are not meant be

    exposed in public. For the man, he has to cover what is between the navel and

    thighs. For woman, her entire body must be covered, except her hands and face.

  5. Facing the directions of the Qiblah
  6. Al-Niyyah, the intentions of Salaat.
  7. The continuation of the acts of Salaat without any long intermission. Acts which

    other people will have doubts whether one is in prayer or not, can nullify the prayer,

    i.e. extensive itching, scratching, falling asleep, etc.

  8. To avoid any foreign speech.

Etiquettes of Walking to the Prayer___________________________

It is recommended:

  •   To walk to the prayer with tranquillity and solemnity; “When the iqamah is called, do not run to the prayer, but proceed to it with tranquillity and solemnity. Pray what you catch (with the congregation), and make up what you miss.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
  •   To take short steps
  •   Not to interlace one’s fingers; “When one of you makes wudoo’ and then heads towards the

    masjid, he should not interlace his fingers, for he is (as if) in prayer.” (Ahmad, Abu Dawud,

    Tirmidhi)

  •   When arriving at the masjid, enter with the right foot first, and say: Bismillah was-salaatu

    was-salamu ‘ala Rasoolillah. Allahumma ighfir li dhunoobi, waftah li abwaba rahmatik. (In the name of Allah and peace and blessings on the Messenger of Allah. O Allah, forgive my sins and open for me the gates of Your mercy.) (Muslim)

  •   When leaving, step out with left food first and say the same as above except with “…waftah li abwaba fadlik” (…and open for me the gates of Your Graciousness).
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_____________________________Description of the Prayer

Intention (it is a determination in the heart that you are performing a particular Salaat; not to be uttered).

Face the direction of the Qiblah (Sacred House in Makkah Known as Ka’bah). Raise your hands to the level of the shoulders, or earlobes, and say

ALLAHU AKBAR

Standing Facing Qiblah and Making Takbeer with raised voice

Place the right hand over the left on the chest. Look at the place of prostration without lowering your head:

Hands on the Chest; Right hand over the left.

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Recite the Opening Invocation (du’a) for Salaat:
[Subhanaka Allahumma wa bihamdika tabaarakas muka wa ta’aalaa jadduka wa laa ilaaha

ghairuk.]

O Allah! I declare You far removed from above all imperfection, and that You deserve all
Praise. Blessed is Your Name. Your Majesty (Glory and Might) is Exalted, and there is no true God Worthy of Worship Except You.

Recitation of Surah Al-Faatiha (Opening Chapter of the Qur’an):
Must be recited in every unit of prayer (Rak’ah). Begin by utter the following with a low voice: A’oodthu billahi minash-shaitanir-rajeem (I seek Refuge with Allah from Satan, the outcast.)

Bismillaahir-Rahmannir-Raheem (In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful) Then you must recite the Faatiha in every Rak’ah, pausing after each verse (ayah):

  • –  Alhamdu lillahi rabbi alAAalameen (All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinn’s and all that exists)).
  • –  Ar-Rahmani-r Raheem (The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful).
  • –  Maliki yawmi deen (The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection)).
  • –  Iyyaka naAAbudu wa-iyyaka nastaAAeen (You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything)).
  • –  Ihdina assirata almustaqeem (Guide us to the Straight Way)
  • –  Sirata allatheena anAAamta AAalayhim ghayri almaghdoobi AAalayhim wala addalleen (The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger (such as the Jews), nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians)).
  • –  At the end, you must say Ameen .

    Those who cannot recite the Faatiha may say instead (Subhanah Allah, Al-Hamdulillah, and la Illaah Illallaah, Allahu Akbar, and laa Hawlah wa Laa Quwata Illaa bil-laah) which means: I declare Allah far removed from all imperfection, and deserving all the Praise, and that there is no true God other than Allah), this is only until they learn the Faatiha which should be as soon as possible.

    Then recite another Surah from the Noble Qur’an.

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Rukoo’ (Bowing Down)

Raise the hands as described previously (see above) and say ALLAHU AKBAR (Allah is the Greatest) while going into the bowing position.

In bowing posture, put the hands on the knees and grab them with your elbows away from your sides, and your back straightened with the head levelled with your back (see below):

Bowing (Rukoo’) Position in Salaat While in bowing position one says:

Subhanna Rabbiyal ‘Adheem (3 times) (Far removed from every imperfection is my Rabb (Lord), the Great).

Standing Upright (Qiyaam) after Rukoo’:
Rise from bowing, raising your hands to the levels of the shoulders, or earlobes, saying:

Sami’Allahu li man hamdidah(Allah hears the one who praises Him). Stand upright until one’s very parts take their positions and say: Rabbana walakal-hamd (O our Rabb (Lord)! All the praise is due to You). The Sujood (Prostration) & Juloos (Sitting):

Reach the ground with the hand’s first and then the knees while saying ALLAHU AKBAR (Allah is the Greatest), and rest on your palm’s and place your forehead, nose, knees, and feet on the floor with your belly away from your thighs. Toes should be erected and directed to the Qiblah. Your arms should be away from the ground, as below, saying:

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Subhaana Rabiyyal-‘Alaa (3 times) (Far removed is my Rabb, the Most High, from any Imperfection)

Prostration Position

Then you raise your head while saying: ALLAHU AKBAR, sit on your left leg while keeping your right foot upright with its fingers to the Qiblah. Put your hands on your knees [see below], and supplicate saying:

Rabbigh-fir-lee (O my Lord! Forgive me).

Sitting Position (The left and right foot in IFTIRASH)

This position of IFTIRASH is done in the last Rak’ah of Fajr and Maghrib Prayer and in all Regular or optional prayers.

Following the sitting position, you come up with a second prostration as you did before. Once done you have completed one full unit (Rak’ah). Say Allahu Akbar and stand up for the second Rak’ah. Do it in the same manner as you did the first one, but without reciting the opening supplication.

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Sitting for Tashahhud (Testification of Faith): First Tashahhud

Once you finish the second Rak’ah, follow the same way of sitting as above. Hold your right hand closed with its thumb and middle finger touching each other like in a circle while pointing the index finger straight in the direction of the Qiblah and moving it through the recitation of the Tashahhud:

Attahiyyaatu lillaahi wassalawaatu wattayyibatu.Assalaamu ‘alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyi warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh.Assalaamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibaadillaahis saaliheen. Ash-hadu an laa ilaaha illallaah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluh.

All compliments [Allah is free of all imperfection, His is the dominion, Magnificence, Endless existence belongs to Him], prayers, and pure words and deeds, are due to Allah. May Allah grant the Prophet safety from all defects and imperfections and keep his message safe from all evil; [may Allah grant him] mercy and honour. May safety and security be granted to us and to all the righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.

Full Tashahhud

At the end of the last Rak’ah, recite the first Tashahhud and follow it with the following recitation known as As-Salaatul Ibraaheemiyyah:

Allaahumma salli ‘ala Muhammad wa ‘ala aali Muhammad kama sallaita ‘ala Ibraaheem wa ‘ala aali Ibraaheem innaka Hameedun Majeed, wabaarik ‘ala Muhammad wa ‘ala aali Muhamaad kama baarakta ‘ala Ibraaheem wa ‘ala aali Ibraaheem innaka Hameedun Majeed.

O Allah! Praise Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as You Praised Ibraaheem, and the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory. And send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent blessings on Ibraaheem, and the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.

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What to do when going for the final Rak’ah in Salaat?

In the prayers of the three or four Rak’ah type, after finishing the second Rak’ah and the first Tashahhud, stand up raising your hands (as described earlier) and say: ALLAHU AKBAR. When you reach the straight standing position, recite the Faatiha and go for the prostrations as done earlier. If you are praying the three Rak’ah prayer of Maghrib sit with your body resting on your left thigh, your left leg under your right, while keeping your right foot upright. This position is called Tawarruk:

Tawarruk Position

For the four Rak’ah prayers, stand up at the end of the third Rak’ah and bring fourth the fourth and final Rak’ah. Recite full Tashahhud in the Tawarruk position.

After recitation of the full Tashahhud, you can supplicate Allah with the following invocation (du’a):

Allaahumma Inni a’oodthu bika min adthabil qabr, wa a’oodthu bika min fitnatil-Maseeh ad-Dajjal, wa a’oodthu bika min fitnatil mahya wal mamat. Allaahumma inni a’oodthu bika minal-ma’tham walmaghram.

O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the Punishment of the grave and from the Fitnah (trail or affliction) of Ad-Dajjaal and from the Fitnah of life and Fitnah of death. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the sins and from being in debt.
You may also ask Allah to bestow upon you from the good things for this life and for the hereafter.

Concluding Salaat by Tasleem:
After you recite the Tashahhud and make the supplications, turn your head to the right and say:

Assalammu ‘alaykum warahmatul-laah (May Allah’s Peace, Mercy be upon you).

Then turn your head left and say:

Assalaammu ‘alaykum warahmatul-laah (May Allah’s Peace, Mercy be upon you).

(Note: IT IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED TO BE TAUGHT FIRST HAND HOW TO PRAY AS TO FIX ANY MISTAKES OR MISUNDERSTANDINGS BY THE READER)

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_______________________________________Salaat Times

There are five obligatory Prayers that a Muslim must complete each day, these prayers are:

Prayer

Time

Rak’ahs

Fajr

From dawn until just before Sunrise

2

Dhuhr

After midday until early afternoon

4

‘Asr

From late afternoon till just before sunset

4

Maghrib

After sunset until daylight twilight ends

3

Isha

Evening until Dawn (most scholars have said the time limit is 12am)

4

It is forbidden to pray during the sunrise, sunset and Zawwal (Noon)

The regular Sunnah prayers fall into two categories:

Sunnahs which are done before the fard prayer – two rak’ahs before Fajr and four before Dhuhr.

Sunnahs which are done after the fard prayer – two rak’ahs after Dhuhr, two rak’ahs after Maghrib and two rak’ahs after ‘Isha.

Concerning their virtue, it was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“Whoever prays twelve rak’ahs during the night and day, a house will be built for him in Paradise: four before Dhuhr and two after, two rak’ahs after Maghrib, two rak’ahs after ‘Isha and two rak’ahs before Fajr prayer.” (Tirmidhi)

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_________________________Consequences of Not Praying

The consequences of not praying are extremely heavy, it is the difference between being a Muslim and a Kafir (disbeliever), and this issue should not be taken lightly.

As a structure needs pillars to stand, so does your Islam, if a structure has a faulty pillar, the entire structure will fall, this is the same for with your Islam, the Prayer, it is one of the main pillars of Islam, if it is not firmly upright then your Islam will collapse and you will fall into disbelief.

The proofs are many and as the late Muhaddith and Sheikh Al-Albaani said, “One proof is sufficient for the seeker of truth, but 1000 proofs is not enough for the person of desires.”

Allah ta’ala says,

But there came after them successors who neglected prayer and pursued desires; so they are going to meet evil – Except those who repent, believe and do righteousness; for those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged at all. (Maryam: 59-60)

‘Ubadah ibn as-Samit (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that he heard the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) say: “Five prayers Allah had dictated on the servants every day and night. He who diligently observes them will have a covenant with Allah that He will admit him into paradise, and he who doesn’t diligently observe them will have no covenant with Allah; if He wills, He will torment him, and if He wills, He will forgive him.” (Abu Dawud)

Jabir reports that the Prophet (peace and blessings and be upon him) said, “Between a person and disbelief is leaving prayer.” (Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi & Ibn Majah)

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “The first thing which will be judged among a man’s deeds on the Day of Resurrection is the Prayer. If this is in good order then he will scueed and prosper but if it is defective then he will fail and will be a loser. (Nasai, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)

And he also said, “If anyone abandons prayer deliberately then he has no claim upon Allah.” (Ibn Majah, Bukhari & Tabarani)

Ibn Hazm (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

We narrated from ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him), Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, Ibn Mas’ood and a number of the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them), and from Ibn al- Mubaarak, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaaq ibn Raahawayh (may Allah have mercy on them), and from 17 of the Sahaabah in total (may Allah be pleased with them) that the one who deliberately and consciously does not offer an obligatory prayer until the time for it ends is a kaafir and an apostate. This is also the view of ‘Abd-Allah ibn al-Maajishoon, the companion of Maalik. And it was the view of ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Habeeb al-Andalusi and others. (al-Fasl fi’l-Milal wa’l-Ahwa’ wa’l-Nihal, 3/128)

He (may Allah have mercy on him) said: And it was narrated from ‘Umar, ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf, Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, Abu Hurayrah and others among the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them) that the one who deliberately does not offer one obligatory prayer until the time for it ends is a kaafir and an apostate. (al-Muhalla (2/15))

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____________________________________________Fasting

The Wisdom behind Fasting__________________________________

Books can be written about the wisdoms of the legislation of Fasting, but some of the more important wisdoms include:

  •   Demonstration of submission to the will of Allah, and exercise of devotion, where the servant reinforces in his heart that Allah comes first, and His pleasure should be the ultimate objective, before any desire. This is the greatest wisdom behind all acts of worship.
  •   Allowing the spirit to bring to balance the equation between the body and soul. For most of the year, most of the people are too busy satisfying their carnal desires to allow their souls to rise to the greater heights of piety, devotion, self-denial, perseverance and asceticism.
  •   Fasting is a great exercise of patience and perseverance, and such qualities are essential for the believer to develop.
  •   Allows the comfortable to experience hunger and thirst, and consequently, sympathize with those who are forced, most of their days to live that experience.
  •   There is no doubt that Fasting is good for one’s health. It rids one of the weaker cells in the body, and allows people to rest the digestive tract, and help them lose some of the extra weight.

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “There is a gate in Paradise called Ar-Raiyan, and those who observe fasts will enter through it on the Day of Resurrection and none except them will enter through it. It will be said, ‘Where are those who used to observe fasts?’ They will get up, and none except them will enter through it. After their entry the gate will be closed and nobody will enter through it.” (Bukhari)

    Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Fasting is a shield (or a screen or a shelter). So, the person observing fasting should avoid sexual relation with his wife and should not behave foolishly and impudently, and if somebody fights with him or abuses him, he should tell him twice, ‘I am fasting.” The Prophet added, “By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, the smell coming out from the mouth of a fasting person is better in the sight of Allah than the smell of musk. (Allah says about the fasting person), ‘He has left his food, drink and desires for My sake. The fast is for Me. So I will reward (the fasting person) for it and the reward of good deeds is multiplied ten times.” (Bukhari)

    Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “When those who do not fast eat near a fast observer, angels pray for him” (Tirmidhi).

    The Prophet said that your Lord said, “Every (sinful) deed can be expiated; and the fast is for Me, so I will give the reward for it; and the smell which comes out of the mouth of a fasting person, is better in Allah’s Sight than the smell of musk.” (Bukhari)

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Ramadan________________________________________________

Fasting in Ramadan is mandatory upon every sane adult Muslim who is capable of fasting.

Allah the Almighty says:

The month of Ramadan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful. (al-Baqarah: 185)

O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous – (al-Baqarah: 183)

A child should be ordered to fast when he can tolerate it, but it is not mandatory on them,
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The pen has been lifted for three (they are not held accountable): from one who has lost his mind until he regains his sanity, one who is asleep until he wakes up, and a child until he reaches puberty.” (Abu Dawud)

However, it’s important to get them used to fasting so that it is not hard on them when they have to. Fasting becomes mandatory upon the occurrence of one of the following two things:

  1. The completion of thirty days of Sha’ban (month prior Ramadan)
  2. The sighting of the crescent moon (hilaal) of Ramadan

Narrated Ibn Umar: I heard Allah’s Messenger saying, “When you see the crescent (of the month of Ramadan), start fasting, and when you see the crescent (of the month of Shawwal [month after Ramadan]), stop fasting; and if the sky is overcast (and you can’t see It) then regard the crescent (month) of Ramadan (as of 30 days)”. (Bukhari)

Virtues of Ramadan________________________________________

Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said, “When the month of Ramadan starts, the gates of Jannah (Paradise) are opened and the gates of Jahannam (Hell) are closed, and the shayatin (devils) are chained up.” (Bukhari & Muslim)

“Whoever establishes prayers during the nights of Ramadan faithfully out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allah’s rewards (not for showing off), all his past sins will be forgiven.” (Bukhari)

A Bedouin came to the Prophet and said, “Tell me of such a deed as will make me enter Paradise, if I do it.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Worship Allah, and worship none along with Him, offer the (five) prescribed compulsory prayers perfectly, pay the compulsory Zakaat, and fast the month of Ramadan.” The Bedouin said, “By Him, in Whose Hands my life is, I will not do more than this.” When he (the Bedouin) left, the Prophet said, “Whoever likes to see a man of Paradise, then he may look at this man.” (Bukhari)

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Rulings on those Exempt from Fasting_________________________

Breaking the fast is permissible in Ramadan for four types of people:

The first is the ill person who would be harmed by fasting and the traveller who is permitted to shorten the prayer. For them, breaking the fast is preferable and they should make up for the number of days they did not fast, and if they fasted it would be valid.

The second type is a menstruating woman and one having postpartum bleeding. They break their fast and make up for [those days], and if they fast it would not be valid.

The third type is a pregnant woman and one who is breast feeding. If they fear for themselves, they break their fast and make up for it. And if they fear for their unborn child, they break and fast and make up for it and feed one poor individual per day.

The fourth type is the person who is incapable of fasting because of old age or an incurable disease. In this case he should feed one poor individual per day.

And as for the rest of those who break their fast, they should make up [those days] only, except for the one who broke his fast by intercourse. In the case he must make it up plus free a slave, and if he could, he should fast two consecutive months, and if he could not, he should feed sixty individuals and if he could, then the burden is lifted from him.

The Nullifiers of Fasting_____________________________________

  •   Intentionally Eats or Drinks
  •   Takes anything into his stomach through his nostrils
  •   Takes anything through any other route (for example: Nutritious Injections which give

    nourishment and reach the stomach)

  •   Intentionally vomits (if you are overwhelmed by vomiting and none goes back down the

    throat passage you are still fasting, if you have intentionally broken you must make up the

    day)

  •   Masturbation
  •   Kissing or touching the opposite sex subsequently ejaculating semen or dripping of madhy

    (pre-seminal fluid) [you are able to kiss your wife as long as you know you will not aroused to the point of ejaculation of semen or madhy].

    Ruling on Forgetfulness or Compulsion_________________________

    If one does any of the nullifiers absentmindedly or is forced, his fast is not nullified. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “He who forgets while fasting and eats or drinks, let him finish his fasting, for it is Allah the Almighty who fed him and gave him drink.” (Bukhari & Muslim)

    The same would apply to one under compulsion, since he did not intentionally break his fast; this also applies to one who had intercourse without remembering that he is fasting.

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____________________________________________Zakaat

Zakaat is obligatory upon every free Muslim who has complete ownership of the nisaab (Zakaat threshold), for each type of wealth there is a minimum below which one does not need to pay zakaat (will be explained as you progress). This may be translated as Zakaatable minimum or Zakaat threshold.

Wisdom of Zakaat_________________________________________

There is no one comprehensive word alone that adequately translates Zakaat. The words alms, donations, charity and so on do not convey the meanings embodied in the word Zakaat, which include:

  •   Purification, for it purifies one’s money from suspicious earnings and it purifies one’s heart from stinginess and miserliness
  •   Increase, for it increases the wealth of the recipient as well as that of the donor by the blessings that will be put in his money, himself and his family and also, through the supplications of the recipient
  •   Praise, for it will be a cause for the donor being praised on the Day of Judgment, also, s/he will be praised by the recipients, who would otherwise have been envious and hateful of the wealthy that withhold their money and share no part of it.
  •   Teaches the Muslim that in essence and ultimately Allah (subhanahu wata’ala) is in ownership of their wealth as they have to pay the Zakaat incumbent upon them and are not able to spend their wealth in unlawful (Haraam) ways.

    There is no zakaat on property until an entire hawl (Islamic/lunar year) has passed, except for that which comes from the land, and the growth arising from capital through birth [as with livestock] or profit. The hawl of these is that of their origin. The passing of the hawl is a condition of obligation for zakaat on livestock, gold and silver, and merchandise.

    Zakaatable Wealth_________________________________________

    Zakaat is only obligatory on four types of property:

  1. Free-grazing, domesticated livestock
  2. What is produced or extracted from the land
  3. Silver and gold
  4. Merchandise prepared for sale.

This book will only be explaining the third type and fourth type as the first and second type are not common in today’s society as the majority of society deals with either the third point or the fourth point.

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Zakaat Threshold__________________________________________

There is no zakaat on any of this until it reaches the nisaab, if the value reaches or exceeds the nisaab, then zakaat is obligatory on the full amount.

Merchandise prepared for sale_______________________________

This includes anything that is obtained for the business of buying and selling: land, animals, food provisions, fabric, cars, spare parts, etc. This inventory is evaluated annually and assessed for Zakaat, whether the value is the same as the amount spent on it, more, or less.

The owners of grocery stores, like any other business, must evaluate every item and give their Zakaat. Simple bookkeeping of inventory, orders, cash on hand, and credits, that is non-delinquent loans, will give one a good picture of the Zakaatable assets. But if one is unable to account for everything in the store or shop, he should assess it according to his ability until he is sure that his conscience is clear.

There is no Zakaat on what is within one’s dwelling or property which includes food, drinks, furniture, houses, animals, cars, clothes and shoes. The only exception is gold and silver. There is no Zakaat on assets from rentals or lease, whether they are apartment units, taxi cabs, etc. That is, there is no Zakaat on the apartment units, buses or cars for rental like yellow cabs company or trucks for rental or equipment. But there is Zakaat on the proceeds or incomes from these rental assets if these assets reach the executable amount, either by themselves or in combination with other assets.

Gold and Silver____________________________________________

Whether used for commerce (trade) or jewellery, Allah (subhanahu wata’ala) says,

“…And those who hoard gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah – give them tidings of a painful punishment. The Day when it will be heated in the fire of Hell and seared therewith will be their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs, [it will be said], “This is what you hoarded for yourselves, so taste what you used to hoard.” (at-Tawbah: 34-35)

Hoarding is meant refusal to give it in the path of Allah, which includes Zakaat.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “For the owner or possessor of gold and silver who does not fulfil its obligation, on the Day of Resurrection it will be cast into sheets of fire and be branded on his forehead, side and back. Whenever it cools it is to be repeated for him in a day whose length is the length of fifty thousand years, until the judgement is rendered among the

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Zakaatable Wealth

Zakaatable Minimum (Nisaab)

Rate of Zakaat

Gold, Silver

Gold: 85 grams Silver: 595 grams

2.5% of the value

Cash Savings

The value of 85 grams of gold

2.5% of the amount

Trade Goods

The value of 85 grams of gold

2.5% of the wholesale value of goods

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people.” (Muslim) By its obligation is meant assessing it for Zakaat. In another version: “No possessor of a treasure who does not give its Zakaat.”

Zakaat is mandatory on gold and silver, irrespective of its form: in coins, raw or nugget, or jewellery for wearing, or for rent, because of the generality of evidence of Zakaat without any detail.

A woman came to the Messenger of Allah with her daughter. On the daughter’s wrist were two heavy gold bracelets. The Messenger asked her, “Do you pay Zakaat on this?” She replied, “No.” The Messenger said: “Would it please you that Allah will encircle you with two bracelets of fire?” The reporter commented that she took them off and threw them down in front of the Messenger, and said: “They are for Allah and his Messenger.” (Ahmed, Tirmidhi).

Zakaat is due on gold when it reaches the amount of (nisaab), which is 20 Dinaar. According to a hadith, the Messenger said: “No Zakaat on you is due until it reaches 20 dinaar.” (Abu Dawud).
The Islamic dinaar (currency) is one mithqal, a unit of weight which weighs four and one quarter of a gram. Thus, the nisaab is 85 grams of gold.

Similarly, there is no Zakaat on silver until it reaches five oqiyah, because the Messenger said: “There is no Zakaat on less than five oqiyah.” (Bukhari& Muslim) Oqiyah is equal to forty Islamic dirhams. The nisaab is 200 dirhams. 200 dirham is equivalent to 595 grams of silver. The Zakaatable amount in both the gold and silver is 2.5% or 0.025

Zakaat of Currency_________________________________________

There are two kinds of currency: gold and silver, but the way our current societies operate, cash (paper money) takes the same ruling as gold and silver, here and in the case of riba (interest/usury), since cash is used by people in our current time as currency, and it was instituted in replacement of gold and silver, even if it not tied to a gold reserve anymore.

There is no zakaat on silver until it reaches 200 dirhams [about 595 grams of pure silver], and its zakaat is five dirhams [2.5%]. There is no zakaat on gold until it reaches twenty mithqal [about 85 grams of pure gold], and its zakaat is half a mithqal [2.5%].

Paper currency is the equivalent to silver, during the early days of Islam, silver and gold were the currency of exchange minted into dirham for silver and dinaar for gold. Silver, not gold, had a larger circulation. Thus many scholars are of opinion that silver should be the standard for the paper currencies of today because that is more advantageous to the Zakaat payer, as it raises the minimum nisaab whereas gold lowers it. Although both metals are no longer circulated, they are still considered as a security against ever fluctuating paper money.

To find out the current threshold, find out the current price of 1 gram of silver multiplied by 595, this is the threshold, if you reach it or exceed it you must pay zakaat on your cash money that you have had in your possession for a lunar year, the Zakaatable amount is 2.5% or 0.025.

For example I have $1000 in my bank account which I have had in the account for a year The current price of 1 gram of Silver is $0.90, so 595 x 0.90 = $535.5. (20/03/2013)
I have exceeded the threshold so I calculate the Zakaat I am owing, $1000 x 0.025 = $25

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_______________________________________Zakaat al-Fitr

Zakaat al-Fitr is charity given at the end of the fast of Ramadan, it is an obligation on every Muslim who owns more than the essential food he needs and his dependents (family), for the eve and the day of the Eid.

The amount of Zakaat al-Fitr, is one saa` of [whole] wheat or barley, or the flour. It can also be paid in crushed form, or in dates or raisins, but if he cannot find this, he should give any kind of food that he eats that would [measure] one saa`.

Whoever must pay Zakaat al-Fitr for himself, must also pay it for all of his dependents, if he owns enough, on the night of Eid, to pay for them.

If someone’s provision is the responsibility of a group of people, like someone in financial difficulty who is a relative of a group of people, his Zakaat al-Fitr is obligatory on them all in accordance with their share of responsibility for his provision.

It is preferable to pay Zakaat al-Fitr on the day of Eid before the prayer. It is not permissible to delay it until after the day of Eid, but it is permissible to pay it a day or two in advance.

It is permissible to give one man the Zakaat that is obligatory on a group and to give a group the Zakaat that is obligatory on one man, note this must be given to a Muslim.

How to Give Zakaat________________________________________

Zakaat may be assessed and returned in two ways:

a) Make a record of all money earned, either daily or monthly, which has reached the nisaab and remains in the treasury. The Zakaat of that money would be due one year later on the same day the money was earned and reached nisaab. This means every month’s income must be set aside and assessed for Zakaat and so will be the case for the rest of the months. For instance, the income of January, 2012 will be assessed for Zakaat in January, 2013, and the income of February, 2012 will be assessed for Zakaat in February 2013, etc. This method of assessing Zakaat is very difficult because it entails complete bookkeeping of daily or monthly earnings.

b) The best way is to set a day or a month, preferably Ramadan, for your annual Zakaat return calendar, say Ramadan 1st, 1433. One year later on the same day Ramadan, 1434, your Zakaat is due and payable. Whatever is in the savings is due for Zakaat, regardless of whether all the amount in the savings reaches a year or not. For instance: if you have $20,000.00 in the savings account on the 1st of Ramadan, 1433 and one year later by the 1st of Ramadan, 1434 there is $50, 000.00, your Zakaat will be assessed for $50,000.00, that is: $50.000.00 x .025= $1,250.00. If, on the other hand, by the 1st of Ramadan, 1413 the amount in the savings is $15,000.00, your Zakaat will be for the amount in the savings, that is $15,000.00 x .025= $375.00. This method is the best because it is easy to assess, meets one’s obligation and relieve one’s conscience.

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The Recipient of Zakaat_____________________________________

They are eight types of people, Allah The Most High says,

Zakaah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect (zakaah) and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveller – an obligation [imposed] by Allah . And Allah is Knowing and Wise (at-Tawbah: 60)

The first type are the poor, and they are those who cannot afford what they need through earning or otherwise.

The second type are the needy (al-masakeen) and they are the ones who can afford some of their needs, but not enough

The third type are the Zakaat workers and they are the people who collect it and that are needed for it (all workers hired by the Zakaat administration).

The fourth type are those whose hearts are to be reconciled, and they are the authorities within their tribes about whom it is hoped that by giving them Zakaat that their evil will be prevented or their faith will be strengthened or that they may help protect the Muslims or help them collect Zakaat from those who are withholding it.

The fifth type are slaves and captives; who are contracted slaves, and for freeing slaves.

The sixth type is for those in debt and they are the debtors who borrowed money for themselves to pay for permissible things or to reconcile two Muslim parties.

The seventh type is in the cause of Allah and they are the fighters who are not part of an organized army unit (unpaid). The fighter (mujahid) will be given as salary what will be enough for him. If he needs to buy arms or some other supplies related to the war effort, Zakaat money should be used provided the effort is to raise the banner of Islam and Jihad.

The eighth is the wayfarer; the traveller who lacks the means to return home even if he was well-off in his homeland.

These are the ones that deserve to receive Zakaat and it is not permissible to give to others.

The poor and needy are given what is sufficient for their needs and the worker will be given fair recompense for his work and the one whose heart is to be reconciled will be given what will reconcile him and the contracted slave and the debtor will be given what they need to pay off what is due on them and the fighter will be given what he needs for fighting and the wayfarer will be given enough to enable him to return to his homeland and none of them may be given more than that.

Five of them will not take anything except in the case of need, and those are: the poor, the needy, the contracted slave, the debtor for himself and the wayfarer.

It is permissible for four of them to be given them the Zakaat even if they are well-off and they are the Zakaat worker, the one to be reconciled, the fighter and the debtor who incurred the debt to reconcile disputants.

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___________________________________________Khilafah

The Khilafah is the ruling system of Islam. It is the Islamic state, in which the implementation of laws completely belongs to a righteous God-fearing ruler, that rules and judges by what Allah has revealed. Allah (subhanahu wata’ala) revealed the Qur’an, as guidance to mankind.

Within the Qur’an, exists many Ayat for the believers to reflect upon and implement in their daily lives, from stories of the Prophets, from understanding of Aqeedah and the principles of faith, and many more – it essentially comes also with a divine law, the Hukm Shar’i that Muslims must be governed with. The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) lived as a minority in Makkah, preaching Tawheed and calling people to reject the Taghout, which was the idols in which the Mushrikeen worshipped for centuries, following the footsteps of their forefathers.

As he challenged the Mushrikeen politically, he had made Hijrah to Abyssinia seeking justice, continuing his open Da’wah to the disbelievers; he eventually sought Nusrah (support) from the tribes that were willing to assist him. Arriving in Madina, with the Muhajireen and through the help of the Ansaar, he established the Islamic state in Medina.

The Islamic state, being the political authority of Islam in which the ruler must implement the shari’ah of Allah with justice and Taqwa (Piety)

The Khilafah is a general leadership over all Muslims on earth, two Khalifs cannot exist, and the evidence for this is when the Messenger of Allah said: “When the oath of allegiance has been taken for two Caliphs, kill the latter of them”(Muslim).

The Khalifah is elected by the people, He is not a dictator or a king but an elected ruler whose authority to rule must be given willingly by the Muslims through a ruling contract called bay’ah (pledge of allegiance), and without bay’ah he cannot be the head of the state. The Muslims are obliged to give him bay’ah, in which it is a direct command from Allah and the Prophet that the people must obey him, as obedience to the ruler is also obedience to Allah.

The Muslims must strive to implement the Shari’ah of Allah towards all nations, so lands of Kufr may become lands of Islam. This is achieved through Da’wah and Jihad. There are many evidences from the Qur’an, in which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was ordered to rule over the people upon what Allah revealed in his glorious book.

“And rule between them by that which Allah revealed to you, and do not follow their vain desires away from the truth which came to you”. (al-Ma’idah: 48)

“The legislation is for none but Allah” (Yusuf: 40)

The establishment of the Khilafah is an obligation upon all Muslims in the world, as the last traces of the Khilafah was abolished in Turkey by the disbelievers and the traitors of the Ummah. It is an obligation on every Muslim to strive to aid the inevitable return of Khilafah to the best of his ability, working within the frame group of a Jama’ah.

Imam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said, “It is obligatory to know that the office in charge of commanding over the people (ie: the Khilafah post) is one of the greatest obligations of the Deen. In fact, there is no establishment of the Deen except by it this is the opinion of the salaf, such as al-Fudayl ibn ‘Iyaad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and others”. (Siyaasah Shari’ah)

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__________________________________________Marriage

The first thing we should look for when marrying is how committed the person is to Islam. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “A woman is normally sought as a wife for her wealth, beauty, nobility, or religiousness (adherence to Islam), but choose a religious woman and you will prosper.” (Muslim) And he said, “A woman is married for four things, i.e., her wealth, her family status, her beauty and her religion. You should marry the religious woman (otherwise) you will be a loser. “(Bukhari) And he said, “The whole world is a provision, and the best object of benefit of the world is the pious woman.” (Muslim)

The same holds true when looking for a husband, as the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “When someone with whose religion and character you are satisfied asks to marry your daughter, comply with his request. If you do not do so, there will be corruption and great evil on earth. “(Tirmidhi)

The man is responsible for providing for his wife, as Allah says,

Let a man of wealth spend from his wealth, and he whose provision is restricted – let him spend from what Allah has given him. Allah does not charge a soul except [according to] what He has given it. Allah will bring about, after hardship, ease. (at-Talaq: 7)

Both the husband and wife should make sure their home is a place where Allah is remembered and His Commandments are reflected and acted upon. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “The similitude of a home in which Allah is remembered and a home in which He is not is like the living and the dead.” (Muslim)

The Wife Obeying Her Husband

A woman must obey her husband as long as he does not tell her to perform any haraam (unlawful) acts. The Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “If a woman observes her five daily prayers, fasts during the month of Ramadan, guards her chastity and obeys her husband, she may enter Paradise through any of the gates she wishes.” (Ibn Hibban)

Allah ta’ala says,

“…So righteous women are devoutly obedient, guarding in [the husband’s] absence what Allah would have them guard.” (an-Nisa: 34)

Kind Treatment to One’s Wife

Just because Allah has given men a position of authority does not give them the right to abuse it. They have to treat their wives in the best manner. Allah says,

“And live with them in kindness.” (an-Nisa: 19)

Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “The believer with the most complete faith is the one with the best character, and the best of them are those whom treat their women the best.” (Tirmidhi)

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_______________________________________________Jinn

Allah Almighty has created certain creatures, some of them are known to us and some of them are not.

In his capacity as Allah’s vicegerent on earth, man is ordained by Allah to worship Him Alone without partners. Consequently, we should not get absorbed in stories about jinn, as it is not a form of worship.

The Qur’an and Sunnah indicate that jinn exist, and that there is a purpose for their existence in this life, which is to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate. Allah Almighty says: “And I (Allah) created not the jinn’s and humans, except they should worship Me (Alone).” (Adh-Dhariyat: 56)

Allah Almighty says, “And among us there are righteous folk and among us there are far from that. We are sects having different rules.” (Al-Jinn: 11) “And there are among us some who have surrendered (to Allah) and there are among us some who are unjust. And whoso hath surrendered to Allah, such have taken the right path purposefully.” (Al-Jinn: 14)

The world of the jinn is an independent and separate world with its own distinct nature and features that are hidden from the world of humans. Jinn’s and humans have things in common, such as the ability to understand and choose between good and evil. The word jinn comes from the Arabic root meaning “hidden from sight”. Allah Almighty says: “… Verily he (shaytan) and his soldiers from the jinn or his tribe see you from where you cannot see them…” (Al-A`raf: 27)

Allah has told us in His Book the essence from which the jinn were created. He says: “And the jinn, We created aforetime from the smokeless flame o fire.” (Al-Hijr : 27)

`A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) says that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The angels were created from light, the jinn were created from fire, and Adam was created from that which has been described to you.” (Reported by Muslim)

Types of jinn

Allah has created different types of jinn. Among them are some who can take on different forms such as dogs and snakes; some who are like flying winds with wings; and some who can travel and rest. Abu Tha`labah al-Khushni says that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) says: “The jinn are of three types: a type that has wings and they fly through the air; a type that looks like snakes and dogs; and a type that stops for a rest then resumes its journey.” (Reported by At-Tahawi in Mushkil Al-’Athar)

The jinn and the sons of Adam

Every individual among the sons of Adam has a jinn who has been appointed to be his constant companion (qarin). Ibn Mas`ud reports that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) says: “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) says: ‘There is not one of you who does not have a jinn appointed to be his constant companion.’ They said, ‘And you too, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘Me too, but Allah has helped me and he has submitted, so that he only helps me to do good.’” (Reported by Muslim)

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The dwelling-places of the jinn

The jinn live where we do live on this earth. They are mostly to be found in ruins and unclean places like bathrooms, dunghills, garbage dumps and graveyards. Hence the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) taught us to take precautions when entering such places, by reciting the adhkar (mentioning Allah’s Name) prescribed by Islam.

One of these are reported by Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) who says: “When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) entered the toilet, he would say, ‘Allahumma inni a`udhu bika min al-khubuthi wal-khaba’ith (O Allah, I seek Refuge with You from all offensive and wicked things [evil deeds and evil spirits]).’”

Some jinn’s are Muslims and some are non-Muslims

Allah tells us that some of the jinn said “And there are among us some who have surrendered (to Allah) and there are among us some who are unjust. And whoso hath surrendered to Allah, such have taken the right path purposefully.” (Al-Jinn: 14)

Jinn can see us while we cannot see them, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) taught us many ways to protect ourselves from their harm. They are seeking refuge of Allah from the accursed shaytan, reciting surat Al-Falaq and surat An-Nas, and reciting the words taught by Allah in the Qur’an. Allah Almighty says, “And say: My Lord! I seek refuge in Thee from suggestions of the evil ones. And I seek refuge in Thee, my Lord, lest they be present with me.” (Al-Mu’minun: 97-98)

Saying Bismillah (in the Name of Allah) before entering one’s home, eating or drinking, and having intercourse will keep Satan from entering the house or partaking with a person in his food, drink and sexual activity. Similarly, mentioning the name of Allah before entering the toilet or taking off one’s clothes will prevent the jinn from seeing a person in a state of undress or harming him. The Prophet (peace and blessings of be upon him) says: “To put a barrier that will prevent the jinn from seeing the `awrah of the sons of Adam, let any one of you say ‘Bismillah’ when entering the toilet.” (Reported by Tirmidhi)

Strength of faith and religion in general will also prevent jinn from harming a person, so much so that if they were to fight, the one who has faith would win. Ibn Mas`ud (may Allah be pleased with him) says: “A man from among the Companions of Muhammad met a man from among the jinn. They wrestled, and the human knocked down the jinn. The human said to him, ‘You look small and skinny to me, and your forearms look like the front paws of a dog. Do all the jinn look like this, or only you?’ He said, ‘No, by Allah, among them I am strong, but let us wrestle again, and if you defeat me I will teach you something that will do you good.’ The human said, ‘Fine.’ He said, ‘Recite (the verse): “Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.” (Al-Baqarah: 255) The human said, ‘Fine.’ He said, ‘You will never recite this in your house but the shaytan will come out of it like a donkey breaking wind, and he will never come back in until the next morning.’” (Reported by Ad-Darami)

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______________________________________________Du’a

And when My servants ask you, [O Muhammad], concerning Me – indeed I am near. I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me. So let them respond to Me [by obedience] and believe in Me that they may be [rightly] guided. (al-Baqarah: 186)

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Du’a is worship”, then he recited what Allah, the Almighty said which means: “And your Lord says: Call on Me; I will answer your (prayers); verily those who are too arrogant to worship Me will surely enter hell abased”. (Ghaafir: 60) (Abu Dawud & Tirmidhi)

The place of du’a is so high to Allah that the Prophet said: “Nothing is more honourable to Allah the Most High than du’a.” (Bukhari),He also said: “The most excellent worship is du’a.”(Bukhari) and in order to warn those who are arrogant, or careless in making du’a, the Prophet said: “The most incapable person is the one who does not make du’a, and the most miserly person is the one who does not give salaam.” (Bukhari), and further, said: “If one does not ask Allah, He will get angry with him.” (Bukhari)

Allah is the Glorious and the Mighty, the answerer of every person in need and every person with a request. Indeed Allah is free of all wants, and He is answerable to none. We have no other God, but Him, whilst He has many servants other than us. Indeed Allah has revealed:

O mankind, you are those in need of Allah , while Allah is the Free of need, the Praiseworthy. (Fatir: 15)

So to fulfil our needs and wants, we must call on Him. Making Du’a to Allah is recognition of our weakness and His greatness. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Ask Allah for everything, even the lace of your shoes. If Allah does not provide, it will never be available.” (Tirmidhi)

Al-Haafidh ibn al-Qayyim explains the causes that lead to one’s supplication being answered in a beautiful way saying; When the servant combines in his supplication presence of the heart and its being attentive and devoting itself solely to Allah, sincerely asking Him for the desired matter, doing so at one of the six times when the supplication is more likely to answered – these being:

  •   The last third of the night.
  •   At the time of the adhan.
  •   Between the adhan and iqamah.
  •   At the ends of the prescribed prayers.
  •   From the time the Imam ascends the pulpit to the time the prayer has finished on the day of

    Jumu`ah.

  •   The last hour after the prayer ‘Asr.

    Please remember our brothers and sisters the Mujahideen, the oppressed and the prisoners in your Du’a it’s the least you can do

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_____________________________The Mysteries of the Soul

“And they ask you (O Muhammad), concerning the Ruh (the spirit); Say: “The Ruh (the Spirit): its knowledge is with my Lord. And of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given a little,” (al-‘Isra: 85)

The majority of Islamic scholars agree that nafs (soul) and ruh (spirit) are two names for one in the same thing, and as such are interchangeable. You will find throughout the Qur’an and the Sunnah the term ‘soul’ and ‘spirit’ used intermittently. Some scholars of Hadith hold the opinion, that the ruh is other than the nafs, but the nafs, which is in the form of man, is dependent on the ruh for existence.

Man’s nature (i.e. nafs) is filled with vanities, desires and passions. It is the source of trials and afflictions, and there is no enemy more hostile to him than his own nafs. Thus, the nafs wants and loves nothing other than the things of this world, while the ruh longs for the Hereafter and invites to it.

According to Ibn al-Qayyim and affirmed by Ibn Abul-‘Izz al-Hanafi, we find their description of the “souls” form described and explained as follows:

“The spirit is an entity which differs from the physical, tangible body. It is a higher type of luminous (or light-like) being, alive and moving, and it penetrates the limbs, circulating through them as water circulates throughout the petals of a rose, as oil circulates throughout the olive, and as fire circulates throughout the burning embers of coal.”(Sharh ‘al Aqeedat at Tahawiyyah)

Descriptions of the spirit as “light”, it’s mode of penetration of the body, and its shape cannot be proven by the Qur’an or the Sunnah. These descriptions can only be considered conclusions based upon their own understanding of the “proofs”.

The Sunnah is replete with description of the state and the nature of the soul. These Hadith substantiate the view held by dependable scholars:

An example of the physical and psychological punishment awaiting the disbeliever’s occurs in the following portion of a long, authentically related Hadith:

“….The Angel of Death says: “O you foul soul, come out to the anger and wrath of your Lord” The soul inside the disbeliever’s body is overcome by terrible fear (and does not want to deliver itself up), whereupon the Angel of Death violently pulls it out like multi-pronged skewers, being yanked out of wet wool – tearing with them the arteries and nerves..” (Bukhari)

It is also narrated in an authentic Hadith Um Salamah reported:

“Allah’s Messenger (saws) entered upon Abu Salamah (i.e. his corpse), whose eyes were wide open. The Prophet (saws) closed the lids and then said: “When the Ruh (spirit) is taken out, the eyesight follows it (i.e. watches it ascend).” (Ahmad & Muslim)

These Hadith indicate in two ways that the soul is indeed a form. First of all, something must have form in order to be grasped and extracted. And second of all, eyes can only visualize something that has form.

In the Qur’an Allah ta’ala has mentioned two deaths and two lives.

“How can you deny Allah when you were dead, he gave you life, then he gave you death and he is going to give you life once again and you will come back to us.”(al-Baqarah: 28)

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“The kafir will say on the day of judgment -Oh Allah, you have bound us to die twice, and you gave us life twice, and now we admit our sins, so is there any way out for us?” (Ghafir: 11)

The first death is the state of the soul when it was first created. Allah (swt) creates first of all from the sperm, it turns into ‘Alaqa’ (leach like substance), then the ‘Mugarah’ (little piece of flesh), and when it is in the shape of a fetus (after 120 days), the soul is breathed into it. This is the moment when life begins. When the soul leaves the body (when death occurs), this is the second death and then Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) gives them a new form and this is the second life.

This life now is the most important one, because what we do in this life, determines what happens in the next.

A third of our life is spent in sleeping. While we are sleeping our souls leave our body.

“Allah takes souls at the time of their death and (the souls) of those that do not die, during their sleep. He retains those souls for which he has ordained death, whereas he releases the rest for an appointed term.” (az-Zumar: 42)

The soul can experiences pain and emotions and we know this by the fact that we dream.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) said;

“The clearest among you in his dreams are the clearest among you in his faith. If you speak the truth all the time, then your dreams will be true, but if you speak lies all the time then your dreams will be false.” (Bukhari)

“If you could see, when the wrongdoers taste the pangs of death, and the angels stretch their hands out (saying), “Deliver up your souls. This day you will be awarded a degrading punishment.” (al-An’am: 93)

Here it is stated that death is painful for the disbeliever’s. Although, they are ordered to surrender their own souls to the angels, they are unwilling; therefore, the soul must be forced out as it does not wish to meet its punishment.

Souls of the Dead Meeting with Each Other
The souls of the dead may be divided into the following two categories: 1. Favoured souls (i.e. those of pious believers)
2. Punished souls (i.e. those of the sinful believers and disbeliever’s)

The souls of the second group are confined to places of punishment and are too preoccupied with the torments of the grave to be able to meet or visit with each other. However, the blessed and favoured souls of the pious believers are free to roam and meet. They may visit and discuss with each other their previous existence on earth. In the barzakh (the place between the physical and spiritual world in which the soul awaits after death and before resurrection on Qiyama) every soul will be with companions of like nature. (Ibn al-Qayyim’s Kitab ar-Ruh page 28)

The following Hadith is a direct reference and clear proof that, in general, the souls of pious believers are able to meet and converse with each other.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“Verily, the soul of the believer (after death) soars up to the heavens, whereupon the souls of other believers come to it, seeking news about those they know from the people of the earth.” (Muslim, Bukhari & Ahmad)

[Excerpts from Mysteries of the Soul Expounded by Abu Bilal Mustafa al-Kanadi]

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_____________________________________Misconceptions

Jihad____________________________________________________

There is, perhaps, no term today that is more misunderstood than the term jihad. Nowadays, the word jihad has solely come to signify a holy war, terrorism or the mass murder of innocent people. However, what is jihad really about and what does it really mean?

The term jihad is in fact derived from the Arabic word jahada, which linguistically means to strive or struggle. In Islam, however, jihad means to exhaust utmost effort striving to please God. This, unsurprisingly, includes fighting, as fighting is a form of struggle. In fact, in most cases whenever the term jihad is mentioned in the Qur’an it means “fighting in the way of God” (for His sake), and to establish LA ILAHA ILLA ALLAH on Earth. The one who engages in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is mujahideen.

Jihad is a very important part of Islam. Unlike Christians, Muslims do not believe in the notion “love thy enemy” or turning the other cheek when attacked. Instead, Muslims believe in the divine principle, “fight those who fight you.” This general guideline and rule agrees with our human nature and survival instinct. That is because it is only natural for one to resist aggression and defend one’s life, property and wealth from any external attack.

Sadly, this basic human right – the right to defend oneself – is nowadays denied to Muslims by modern-day democracies, such as the British government and American administration. This is clearly evident in the fact that Muslims in Afghanistan, Iraq, Palestine, Chechnya and Kashmir who are resisting the brutal occupation of their lands are continually branded and portrayed as terrorists and violent extremists by such regimes.

On top of this, any Muslim in the West that has the fortitude to condemn the evil actions of Coalition forces is similarly branded a “terrorist sympathiser” or accused of “glorifying terrorism” for believing in the right of Muslims to defend their land from occupation. It is not even permitted for a Muslim to discuss the causes of 9/11 or 7/7 – in order to gain lessons – without fear of being labelled a terrorist fanatic.

The irony of this situation is that if tomorrow Australia or any other western country is being occupied, every Australian or westerner would consider it their right, without any question, to fight for their country and defend their land, even if such actions were deemed as terrorism by other nations.

So, in summary, jihad does not translate as “holy war” or the killing of innocent people. It is to strive, with utmost effort, to please God and fight in His way. It is famously reported that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:

“The best form of jihad is to speak the truth in the face of a tyrant ruler.” (Abu Dawud &Tirmidhi)

The greatest tyrants today are those who fight for the rule of man over the laws of God (Shari’ah law). Jihad and the establishment of Shari’ah law on earth are the only two things which will unite all people, of all races, and rid the world of oppression, poverty and corruption for good.

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Voting in Democratic Elections_______________________________

A Brief Description of Democracy:

Democracy is a term of Greek origin meaning the ‘rule of the people’. In such a system, the population is given the chance over four or five years to choose which political party, they feel is best to govern them in a process known as voting. Those who obtain the majority of votes are then ushered in as the ruling party of the country. These elected people gain seats in the Parliament, where new laws are discussed, accepted, removed or amended (legislation).

Therefore, those who voted for these politicians are ultimately accountable for the final decisions made by their elected candidates. If these ministers formulate and accept, by their majority opinion, that any Divinely-forbidden acts (abortion, sodomite and lesbian marriages, gambling, prostitution etc.) are deemed ‘beneficial’ for the people, then through majority voting, these would be accepted and implemented as law, such that the people will have to live and judge by them. Those who oppose/disobey these laws are regarded as intolerant and opposed to the Constitution.

Based on the evidences presented earlier in the Tawheed al-Hakimiyyah section, it is clearly established that Legislation is reserved solely for Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

One of His Attributes is Al Haakim (The Legislator), within a democracy; legislation takes place according to the whims and desires of the creation. This man-made authority of istihlaal (determining halaal and haraam) is in total opposition to the Shari’ah (laws of Allah) and thus renders democracy a system of shirk as it is a rival with Allah in Legislation and Judgement.

Support for such a system ranges from being sinful (best case scenario) to being a mushrik (worst case scenario), depending on the extent/degree of one’s belief in the system.

The call for voting is a call for further subjugation of the will and identity of Muslims. It is a call to integrate into Muslims the values of secularism and the ‘equality’ of Tawheed (Islam) and shirk (all other religions). The drive towards secularising the Muslims has already led to many Muslims suffering the consequences of ‘freedom’, clearly apparent in the lifestyles and values of the disbelieving society around them that many Muslims have proudly adopted. Hayaa (modesty) is disappearing at a rapid rate. Our youth (our future) have become submerged into the kufr (disbelief) culture around them. Rampant illicit sex, drug abuse, HIV and even sodomy have found their way into the Muslim community. Our once-treasured Muslim elders are disrespected with some even being dumped off at ‘old age homes’.

When voting, you are supporting someone in their battle for the position of Legislator in Parliament, you are choosing your Lord that will make what is legal (halaal) and illegal (haraam) for you, you are giving the right of legislation to a man, this is Shirk Akbar (may Allah protect us from it).

Allah ta’ala says,

Have you not seen those who claim to have believed in what was revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you? They wish to refer legislation to Taghout, while they were commanded to reject it; and Satan wishes to lead them far astray. (an-Nisa:60)

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Women’s Rights in Islam____________________________________

Women in Islam are thought to be subjugated, degraded, oppressed – but are they really? Are millions of Muslims simply that oppressive or are these misconceptions fabricated by a biased media?

“And for women are rights over men, similar to those of men over women.” (al-Baqarah: 228)

Over fourteen hundred years ago, Islam gave women rights that women in the West have only recently began to enjoy. In the 1930’s, Annie Besant observed, “It is only in the last twenty years that Christian England has recognised the right of woman to property, while Islam has allowed this right from all times. It is a slander to say that Islam preaches that women have no souls.” (The Life and Teachings of Mohammed, 1932).

Men and women worship Allah in the same way, meaning they worship the same God (Allah), perform the same acts of worship, follow the same scripture, and hold the same beliefs. Allah (the Arabic word for the One true God of all creation), judges all human beings fairly and equitably. Allah emphasises the just treatment and reward due to both men and women in many verses of the Qur’an:

“Allah has promised to the believers, men and women, gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein, and beautiful mansions in gardens of everlasting bliss.” (at-Tawbah: 72)

“Never will I allow the loss of the work of any worker amongst you, male or female; you are of one another.” (‘Ali `Imran 3: 195)

Both men and women are equally encouraged to seek knowledge. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Education is compulsory for every Muslim.”

Also, great female Muslim Scholars existed at and around the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him). Some were from his family and others were his companions or their daughters. Prominent amongst them was Aisha, the wife of the Prophet (peace be upon him) through who a quarter of the Islamic law has been transmitted.

Other females were great scholars of jurisprudence and had famous male scholars as their students.

Islam has honoured women by giving them the right to choose a spouse and keep their original family name once married. Additionally, many have the impression that parents force their daughters into marriage. This is a cultural practice, and has no basis in Islam. In fact, it is prohibited.

At the time of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), a woman came to him and said, “My father has married me to my cousin to raise his social standing and I was forced into it.” The Prophet sent for the girl’s father and then in his presence gave the girl the option of remaining married or nullifying the marriage. She responded, “O Messenger of Allah, I have accepted what my father did, but I wanted to show other women (that they could not be forced into a marriage).”

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The Prophet (peace be upon him) also encouraged men to treat their spouses in the best way, “The best of you are those who are best (in treatment) to their wives.”

“And among His signs is that He created or you wives amongst yourselves that you may dwell in tranquillity with them; and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts). Surely in this are Signs for people who reflect.” (ar-Rum: 21)

Aisha (the Prophet’s wife) was once asked how the Prophet’s conduct was in his home. She said, “He was like one of you at home, yet he was most lenient and most generous … He was ready to give a helping hand to his wives in the ordinary work of the house, [he] sewed his own clothes and mended his own shoes.” In general, he helped in whatever work his wives did.

A mother has the greatest influence on a child especially in the earlier years through her affection, care and love. Undoubtedly, the success of a society is due to mothers. Therefore, it is only right for Islam to honour and raise their status.

Allah says in the Qur’an:

“And we have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his Parents, His mother bears him with hardship and she brings him forth with hardship.” (al-‘Ahqaf: 15)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) was once asked, “O Messenger of Allah, who among people is most deserving of my good treatment?” He said, “Your mother.” The man asked twice more, “Then who?” and was given the same response. Only until the fourth time did the Prophet respond, “Then your father.” Reward is not only given to the good and kind treatment towards mothers. In fact, Islam has designated a special reward for raising daughters that is not granted for raising sons.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “Whoever Allah has given two daughters and is kind towards them; they will be a reason for him entering Paradise.”

Before Islam, women were considered shameful, female children were buried alive, prostitution was rampant, divorce was only in the hands of the husband, inheritance was only for the strong, and oppression was widespread. Islam came and abolished these practices. Even now, in “developed countries”, women are not granted respect, dignity and honour, let alone equal pay for equal work. Islam, however, regards women as precious and valuable, not to be disrespected or disgraced. The mistreatment of women in some Middle-Eastern countries or Muslim families is due to cultural factors that some Muslims wrongly follow, not because of Islam. Why would many women around the world willingly enter Islam if it is an oppressive religion?

We end with the words of our Lord, the Creator and Sustainer of all men and women:

“Surely the men who submit and the women who submit, and the believing men and the believing women, and the obedient men and the obedient women, and the truthful men and the truthful women, and the patient men and the patient women, and the humble men and the humble women… Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward.” (al-‘Ahzab: 35)

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_________________________Success is Only through Islam

Peace of mind, contentment, happiness and freedom from worries and anxiety… these are what everyone wants and these are the ways in which people can have a good life and find complete happiness and joy. There are religious means of achieving that, and natural and practical means, but no one can combine all of them except the believers; although other people may achieve some of them, they will miss out on others.

Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) says in the Qur’an

Whoever does righteousness, whether male or female, while he is a believer – We will surely cause him to live a good life, and We will surely give them their reward [in the Hereafter] according to the best of what they used to do. (an-Nahl: 97)

Allah the Most Just, the Most Truthful tells us and promises us that whoever combines faith with righteous deeds will have a good life and a good reward in this world and in the Hereafter.

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “How wonderful is the situation of the believer, for all his affairs are good. If something good happens to him, he gives thanks for it and that is good for him; if something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience, and that is good for him. This does not apply to anyone but the believer.” (Muslim)

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) told us that the believer is always gaining and the reward for his deeds is always multiplying, no matter what happens to him, good or bad.

The key is patience, Allah ta’ala says,

And We will surely test you with something of fear and hunger and a loss of wealth and lives and fruits, but give good tidings to the patient, Who, when disaster strikes them, say, “Indeed we belong to Allah , and indeed to Him we will return.” Those are the ones upon whom are blessings from their Lord and mercy. And it is those who are the [rightly] guided. (al-Baqarah: 155-157)

Allah is telling us that we will be tested, Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: “We believe,” and will not be tested. (al-`Ankabut: 2)

And He further explains to us those who say “Indeed we belong to Allah, and indeed to Him we will return”, these are the ones upon whom blessings from their Lord and mercy and it is those who are the rightly guided.

This is what we want, and this is what we strive for, this is what we live for, we live for the worship of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), we live to seek His Pleasure and Only His pleasure as Ibn Qayyim said: “Every drop of sweat and every breath we take in life, if not taken for the sake of Allah, will lead to regret and sorrow on the Day of Judgement.”

This is all done, so that when we meet Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) on the Day of Judgement, knowing we did our best in this life and hoping for His Mercy that He may enter us and accept us into His Paradise. May Allah grant all the Muslims the Highest Level of Paradise, Ameen.

We were the most disgraced of people, and Allah granted us honour with Islam. Now, whenever we

seek honour in other than what Allah honoured us with, Allah shall disgrace us (once again).

– Umar Bin Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him)

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___________________________________________Glossary

Adhan: Call for formal Islamic Prayer

Alayhi Salam: Peace be upon him, this is said after mentioning the Prophets (peace be upon them)

Al Walaa Wal Baraa: Alliance (love) and Disavowal (hate) for the sake of Allah

Ansar: The Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) who lived in Madinah and supported him and those who emigrated to Madinah with him from Makkah.

‘Aqeedah: The creed and beliefs of a person

Asmaa’ was-Sifaat: One of the four categories of Tawheed, the Names and Attributes of Allah

‘Asr: Afternoon Prayer

Ayat/Ayah: Verses of the Qur’an

Azza wa Jall: Mighty and the Majestic

Barzakh: Barrier between the physical and spiritual worlds, in which the soul awaits after death and before resurrection on Qiyama

Dajjal: False Messiah that will come at the Ends of time Da’wah: Preaching and spreading Islam
Deen: Religion
Dhuhr: Noon Prayer until Afternoon

Dirham:

Dinaar:

Dunya: This temporary worldly life/existence

Fajr: Dawn until Sunrise prayer

Fiqh: Islamic Jurisprudence

Fitnah: a problem

Hadith: A collection of sayings, teachings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him)

Hakimiyyah: One of the four categories of Tawheed, the Legislation is Only for Allah. Halaal: The lawful actions allowed according to Islamic Shari’ah
Haraam: The unlawful actions prohibited according to Islamic Shari’ah

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Hereafter: Life after death, you will either be in Paradise or Hell-Fire (may Allah save us from it) Ghusl: Major Ablution which is needed when you are in a major state of impurity
Iman: Faith
Iqamah: Call to rise for Prayer

‘Isha: Night Prayer until Midnight Ithbaat: Affirmation
Jahiliyyah: Pre-Islam, days of ignorance Janabah: Major Impurity

Kafir: Disbeliever Kufr: Disbelief

Khilafah: An Islamic state led by a One God-Fearing Leader known as the Khalif, Shari’ah is implemented under the Khilafah

Janhanum: Hell-Fire
Jannah: Paradise
Jihad: Struggling
Maghrib: Sunset prayer
Masjid: House of Allah (in the west known as Mosque)
Muhajiroon: Those Companions of the Prophet who migrated from Makkah to Madinah Mujahideen: The ones who fight in the cause of Allah

Mushrikoon/Mushrikeen: The people who commit shirk, the people of shirk
Nafy: Negation
Nawafil: Voluntary, usually refers to Voluntary prayers or other acts of worship like fasting. Qadr: The predestination or pre-decree of Allah
Qiblah: The direction in which every Muslim faces in prayer, towards the Ka’bah in Makkah Qiyama: Judgement Day
Rahimahullaah: May Allah have Mercy on him
Ruboobeeyah: One of the four categories of Tawheed, referring to Allah’sLordship Sahabah: The Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him)

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Salaat/Salaah: Prayer
Salaf: The righteous predecessors – those who followed the Prophet and his Companions in religion

salAllahu alayhi wa sallam: This is said after mentioning the Prophet Muhammad’s name, it means peace and blessings be upon him

Shari’ah: The Laws of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), the Laws of Islam.
Shaykh: A term often used to refer to a scholar of Islam
Shaytaan: A devil from men or Jinn, another unseen, creation of Allah
Shirk: Associating partners with Allah in anything that is exclusive to only Him, such as worship Sifaat: Attributes or characteristics, usually referring to the Attributes of Allah

Siwaak/Miswaak: Siwak or Miswak is a natural tooth brush prepared from the roots or branches of various trees and bushes. The most common and beneficial is that of the root of the Salvadora Persica, a wild desert plant known in Arabic as Arak, and in Urdu as Peelu.

Subhanahu wa ta’ala: “Glorified and High is He above all imperfections.” (Allah)

Sunnah: The statements, beliefs, actions, approvals or descriptions of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

Taghout: anyone who exceeds the limits of the Shari’ah by ascribing to himself any of the rights of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala), like the right to be worshiped or obeyed and makes himself a partner or rival besides Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala).

Tawheed: Pure monotheism
Tayammum: Dry ablution
Uluhiyyah: One of the four categories of Tawheed, The worship for Allah one. Ummah: One United Muslim Community, the body of Muslims united Wudoo: Minor ablution, needed for certain acts of worship

Zakaat/Zakaah: The obligation that an individual has to donate a certain proportion of wealth each year to charitable causes. Zakaat is a mandatory process for Muslims in order to physically and spiritually purify their yearly earnings that are over and above what is required to provide the essential needs of a person or family.

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