Episode three covers the secret Sykes-Picot agreement between Britain and France and the way the two imperial powers carved up the former Ottoman Empire between them, regardless of the rights and demands of rights and nationalist movements across the Arab world.
Despite the Egyptian Revolution and the Iraq Uprising, Arab subservience to Ottoman rule was replaced by a series of mandates across the region in which Britain and France seized control of the areas they prized most – to satisfy their own ambitions, interests and ultimately to gain access to region’s valuable oil resources.
The war gave birth to the Turkish nationalist movement which led to the founding of the modern Turkish state; and to Zionism, aided greatly by the Balfour Declaration of 1917. The Treaty of Versaillles, however, was referred to by one German-Ottoman military leader not as a peace but as ‘a twenty year armistice’ – and so it proved …
One hundred years after the Ottomans joined the war, this three-part series tells the story from an Arab perspective. Episode two tells the story of the decline of the Ottoman Empire, the fall Sultan Abdul Hamid II, the rise of the young Turk government in his place – and the history of the Ottoman-Germany relationship which led to the Treaty of Alliance between them in August 1914.
By: Muhammad Wajid Akhter
Seeing a scene of impeccable beauty, we often hear the term “Heaven on Earth!” But there is only one place that literally has the right to proclaim itself heaven on Earth. There, deep in the mosque of the Prophet (masjid Nabawi), covered by green carpets and the tears of millions, lies a “garden from the gardens of paradise.” It is a place known to every Muslim who has ever lived, yet there’s still much we don’t know about it. Here are just some of the interesting facts and mysteries of the Prophet’s Mosque:
By: Abu Safiyyah
Umm Haram Bint Milhan (may Allah be pleased with her) was a maternal aunt of Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and he would often visit her and would sometimes take a nap in her house. One day, the prophet came to visit her and she provided him with food and started grooming his head. The prophet fell asleep and a short while later woke up smiling. Umm Haram asked,
“What makes you smile, O Messenger of Allah?” He said,”Some people of my ummah were shown to me (in my dream) fighting in the way of Allah, sailing in the middle of the seas like kings on the thrones (or he said) like kings sitting on their thrones.” Umm Haram added, “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Pray to Allah to make me one of them.’ ” So the Messenger of Allah prayed to Allah for her and then laid his head down (and slept). Then he woke up smiling (again). (Umm Haram added): I said, “What makes you smile, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “Some people of my ummah were shown to me (in my dream) fighting in the way of Allah.” He said the same as he had said before. I said, “O Messenger of Allah! Pray to Allah to make me one of them.” He said, “You will be among the first ones.” (Reported by Bukhari)
Many years later after the demise of the Prophet, when the borders of Islam had reached Syria and beyond, Mu’awiyah (may Allah be pleased with him) who was the governor at the time was facing a growing problem of Byzantine attacks on Syria’s coastline who were using Cyprus as a launch point. He sought permission from the second caliph, Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) to launch a naval attack against Cyprus to bring an end to attacks by the Byzantines. Umar didn’t give permission because of the dangers of the sea and the inexperience of the Muslims in naval warfare.
Incredible rare footage from Jerusalem in 1896. Jews, Muslims, Christians living in harmony under the Ottomans
Much like previous Muslim Empires, the Ottomans showed great toleration and acceptance of non-Muslim communities in their empire. This is based on existing Muslim laws regarding the status of non-Muslims. They are protected, given religious freedoms, and free from persecution according to the Shariah. One of the first precedents of this was the Treaty of Umar ibn al-Khattab, in which he guaranteed the Christians of Jerusalem total religious freedom and safety.