By: Robert Scheer
For democracy, privacy is the ball game. Without the assurance of a zone of inviolate space, both physical and mental, that a citizen can inhabit without fear of observation by others, there is no guarantee of the essential sovereignty of the individual promised in the First and Fourth Amendments to the US Constitution. That should be clear, as it is to most people who have been oppressed by the tyranny of authoritarian regimes. Indeed, as Aldous Huxley and George Orwell brilliantly established in their classic writing on this subject, the totality of societal observation over the individual is the defining antithesis of freedom, even when that observation is gained through hidden and subtle persuasion.
By: Hassan Youssef
Islam takes great interest in knowledge.
It commands people to meditate upon the phenomena of the universe in which we live and contemplate over the creation of God in order to discover the mysteries of nature and the universe.
Islam also urges us to travel about in the earth to explore its secrets. There are many verses in the Quran that instruct the Muslims to meditate and observe the universe since observation is the first step of the scientific method.
The question of who invented the scientific method is extremely difficult to answer, simply because it is difficult to pin down exactly where it started.
By: Marty Shuttleworth
The scientific method evolved over time, with some of history’s greatest and most influential minds adding to and refining the process.
Whilst many point to Aristotle and the Greek philosophers as the prime movers behind the development of the scientific method, this is too much of a leap.
Whilst the Greeks were the first Western civilization to adopt observation andmeasurement as part of learning about the world, there was not enough structure to call it the scientific method.
It is fair to say that Aristotle was the founder of empirical science, but the development of a scientific process resembling the modern method was developed by Muslim scholars, during the Golden age of Islam, and refined by the enlightenment scientist-philosophers.