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The Nine Types of Intelligence


By: Howard Gardner

  1. Naturalist Intelligence (“Nature Smart”)

Designates the human ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations).  This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef.  It is also speculated that much of our consumer society exploits the naturalist intelligences, which can be mobilized in the discrimination among cars, sneakers, kinds of makeup, and the like.

  1. Musical Intelligence (“Musical Smart”)

Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tone.  This intelligence enables us to recognize, create, reproduce, and reflect on music, as demonstrated by composers, conductors, musicians, vocalist, and sensitive listeners.  Interestingly, there is often an affective connection between music and the emotions; and mathematical and musical intelligences may share common thinking processes.  Young adults with this kind of intelligence are usually singing or drumming to themselves.  They are usually quite aware of sounds others may miss.

  1. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (Number/Reasoning Smart)

Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to calculate, quantify, consider propositions and hypotheses, and carry out complete mathematical operations.  It enables us to perceive relationships and connections and to use abstract, symbolic thought; sequential reasoning skills; and inductive and deductive thinking patterns.  Logical intelligence is usually well developed in mathematicians, scientists, and detectives.  Young adults with lots of logical intelligence are interested in patterns, categories, and relationships.  They are drawn to arithmetic problems, strategy games and experiments.

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Mathematical miracles of the Quran: Word Repetitions



Apart from the miraculous characteristics of the Qur’an which we have looked into so far, it also contains what we can term “mathematical miracles.” There are many examples of this fascinating Qur’anic aspect. One example of this is the number of repetitions of certain words in the Qur’an. Some related words are surprisingly repeated the same number of times. Below is a list of such words and the number of repetitions in the Qur’an.

The statement of “seven heavens” is repeated seven times. “The creation of the heavens (khalq as-samawat)” is also repeated seven times.

“Day (yawm)” is repeated 365 times in singular form, while its plural and dual forms “days (ayyam and yawmayn)” together are repeated 30 times. The number of repetitions of the word “month” (shahar) is 12.

The number of repetitions of the words “plant” and “tree” is the same: 26

The word “payment or reward” is repeated 117 times, while the expression “forgiveness” (mughfirah), which is one of the basic morals of the Qur’an, is repeated exactly twice that amount, 234 times.

When we count the word “Say,” we find it appears 332 times. We arrive at the same figure when we count the phrase “they said.”

The number of times the words, “world” (dunya) and “hereafter” (akhira) are repeated is also the same: 115

The word “satan” (shaitan) is used in the Qur’an 88 times, as is the word “angels” (malaika).

The word faith (iman) (without genitive) is repeated 25 times throughout the Qur’an as is also the word infidelity (kufr).

The words “paradise” and “hell” are each repeated 77 times.

The word “zakah” is repeated in the Qur’an 32 times and the number of repetitions of the word “blessing” (barakah) is also 32.

The expression “the righteous” (al-abraar) is used 6 times but “the wicked” (al-fujjaar) is used half as much, i.e., 3 times.

The number of times the words “Summer-hot” and “winter-cold” are repeated is the same: 5.

The words “wine” (khamr) and “intoxication” (saqara) are repeated in the Qur’an the same number of times: 6

The number of appearances of the words “mind” and “light” is the same: 49.

The words “tongue” and “sermon” are both repeated 25 times.

The words “benefit” and “corrupt” both appear 50 times.

“Reward” (ajr) and “action” (fail) are both repeated 107 times.

“Love” (al-mahabbah) and “obedience” (al-ta’ah) also appear the same number of times: 83

The words “refuge” (maseer) and “for ever” (abadan) appear the same number of times in the Qur’an: 28.

The words “disaster” (al-musibah) and “thanks” (al-shukr) appear the same number of times in the Qur’an: 75.

“Sun” (shams) and “light” (nur) both appear 33 times in the Qur’an.

  • In counting the word “light” only the simple forms of the word were included.

The number of appearances of “right guidance” (al-huda) and “mercy” (al-rahma) is the same: 79

The words “trouble” and “peace” are both repeated 13 times in the Qur’an.

The words “man” and “woman” are also employed equally: 23 times.

Will they not ponder the Qur’an? If it had been from other than Allah, they would have found many inconsistencies in it.
(Qur’an, 4:82)

The number of times the words “man” and “woman” are repeated in the Qur’an, 23, is at the same time that of the chromosomes from the egg and sperm in the formation of the human embryo. The total number of human chromosomes is 46; 23 each from the mother and father.

“Treachery” (khiyanah) is repeated 16 times, while the number of repetitions of the word “foul” (khabith) is 16.

“Human being” is used 65 times: the sum of the number of references to the stages of man’s creation is the same: i.e.

Human being 65

Soil (turab) 17

Drop of Sperm (nutfah) 12

Embryo (‘alaq) 6

A half formed lump of flesh (mudghah) 3

Bone (‘idham) 15

Flesh (lahm) 12


The word “salawat” appear five times in the Qur’an, and Allah has commanded man to perform the prayer (salat) five times a day.

The word “land” appears 13 times in the Qur’an and the word “sea” 32 times, giving a total of 45 references. If we divide that number by that of the number of references to the land we arrive at the figure 28.888888888889%. The number of total references to land and sea, 45, divided by the number of references to the sea in the Qur’an, 32, is 71.111111111111%. Extraordinarily, these figures represent the exact proportions of land and sea on the Earth today