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101 East explores the human cost of the severe drought paralysing Australia’s north.
Giant Ice Bombs
Getting caught in the rain is not a fun thing because you end up wet. However, getting caught in a hailstorm can seriously injure you if the hailstones are big. Exceptionally big hailstones are called ice bombs. One such ice bomb weighted 80 pounds!
While thunderstorms are usually connected in our minds with warm climates or at least summer, there is such weather phenomenon as “thundersnow.” This storm takes place in late winter or early spring because that is when warm mass of air is topped with cold one. However, there is another important ingredient that distinguishes between a usual thunderstorm and a thundersnow. While the air below should be warmer than the air above it, the air below also has to be cold enough for snow to form.
Liquids have amazing qualities, one of them is being a balancing force. Gravity waves are waves generated in the fluid medium in order to restore the force of gravity or buoyancy. For example, if the water has been “deformed” by an object that fell into it, it is gravity wave’s responsibility to restore calm on the surface. However, because the clouds also consist of fluids, this kind of waves can also appear in the sky.
Diamond dust is a type of a fog, a ground-level cloud. When it gets extremely cold, the fog contents become ice droplets. Most often this phenomenon is observed in Arctic and Antarctica.
The phenomenon called Katabatic Winds (from the Greek “katabaino” which means “to go down”) is a kind of wind created due to differences in air pressure. High elevations, for example in Greenland, California, or fjords or Norway, create such inconsistencies in pressure. The speed of this type of wind can reach up to 13 feet per second.
This type of clouds forms in sinking air, while most clouds usually form in rising air. For a mammatus to form, the sinking air must be cooler than the air around it and have a lot of liquid water or ice inside. The cloud sinks with the air, and the result resembles cow udders.
More Than One Sun (Illusion)
Even on a clear, sunny day, there are weather phenomena waiting for us. If the Sun is low and cirrus clouds are high in the sky, sometimes you can see three suns shining in the sky. These two additional suns are an optical illusion created by refracted sunlight.