Blog Archives

The higher objectives of the Sharia

books-lib

Source: ilmgate.org

By: Mateen A. Khan (translator)

Translators comment: Maqāsid al-Sharī‘ah refers to the set of objectives and goals which the Sharī‘ah strives to establish. For example, the preservation of faith, life, lineage, intellect and property are essential objectives of the Sharī‘ah as propagated by Imam al-Ghazālī. These objectives establish benefits (al-masālih) and remove harms (al-mafāsid) for the individual and community. However, we find that some misconstrue their place and derive rulings from the objectives while going against the primary textual evidences i.e. the Qur’an and Sunnah. For clarification, we turn towards a translated chapter from Usūl al-Iftā’[1] by Mufti Taqi Usmani (May Allah bless and preserve him) entitled Maqāsid al-Sharī‘ah.

Read the rest of this entry

Advertisements

History of Tétouan, Morocco

info-pictogram1 The battle of Tetouan took place in 1859 – 1861 between the Spanish Army Of Africa and the Moroccan Army. This battle was a part of the Spanish – Moroccan War. The Spanish Army was composed of 36,000 men, 65 pieces of artillery, and 41 ships. Their objection was to take Tetouan which was lead by the prime minister of Spain and 1st Duke of Morocco, Leopoldo O’Donnell. The Spanish divided the army into three columns commanded by Juan Zavala de la Puente, Antonio Ros de Olano, and Ramon de Echague. The reserves were controlled by Juan Prim, and the Fleet was commanded by admiral Segundo Diaz Herrero. The battle erupted on December 17, 1859 by the column commanded by Zavala de la Puente. December 19, 1859 Echague captured the Palacio del Serrallo. On December 21st, O’Donnell commanded a squad that arrived at Ceuta. On Christmas Day the three columns were waiting to get orders to attack Tetouan. At the start of 1860 Juan Prim advanced toward the Guad al Gelu. Zavala’s column and the Spanish Navy guarded Prim’s flank. Melees from this continued until the 31st of January 1861. The city eventually fell on February 6th, 1861. When O’Donnell returned he made camp north of Madrid that eventually became a town called Tetuan de las Victorias.

The middle of Ramadan: a gift of forgiveness

men-in-prayer

Forgiveness has been a recurring theme throughout the realm of creation.

From the moment God created the first man – Adam (peace be upon him) – Iblis (Satan) was denied forgiveness after defying God’s command to prostrate before the first man of creation.

Iblis was left to roam around Paradise, but wasn’t forgiven and it’s a well known narration that Iblis would never be forgiven despite his duration on earth, and will eventually become a dweller of Hellfire.

The story of creation of course continues with the creation of Hawa (Eve). Adam and his wife, Eve, were lured into consuming forbidden fruit, both made the first error as far as God was concerned, as they defied God’s one single commandment to stay away from the forbidden fruit. Both husband and wife asked God for forgiveness for transgressing His instruction.

Both of them were forgiven after repenting, but were also assigned the position of vicegerents on Earth. From then on, the offspring of Adam and Eve have always committed errors, and forgiveness has always been on the platter as far as the relationship between man and God is concerned.

God promises: {And seek forgiveness of Allah; surely Allah is Forgiving, Compassionate.} (Al-Muzzammil 73: 20)

The fact that God talks about forgiveness shows how deficient human beings really are. Humans do commit error and do engage in wrong doings, but there is an important facet to this flaw in our own beings, that we may be completed by turning back to God and asking for His forgiveness.

There is also no measure as to how much error one can commit, as God being Al-Ghafour (the All-Forgiving) promises that He will forgive those who ask forgiveness. Part of being human includes committing wrongdoings and incurring sin. However, just because we were created that way – with the grand possibility to follow evil – it doesn’t justify making the active choices to engage in bad deeds without any conscientious effort to repent. The whole silver lining as a circumference of a bad deed is the fact there is an opportunity to make that change and beg for forgiveness from God.

{And whoever does evil, or wrongs his own soul, but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, will find Allah is Forgiving, Compassionate.} (An-Nisa’ 4: 110)

In particular, the middle of Ramadan encompasses the 10 days of Forgiveness, and this is when Muslims are commanded to ask for forgiveness the most. The important thing to note about forgiveness is its root comes from God. With God being Al-Ghafour(the All-Forgiving), Muslims pay heed to God’s power to forgive. Without God’s forgiveness, admission to Paradise would be impossible. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said that whosoever stands in worship on this night with sincere faith and with genuine hopes of gaining reward his previous sins will be forgiven. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

In fact, one who fasts sincerely and successfully from one Ramadan to another will have his sins forgiven. So obviously, the month of Ramadan is one of full forgiveness, and to solidify this, Prophet Muhammad said:

“The smell from the mouth of a fasting person is sweeter in the sight of Allah than the fragrant smell of musk. For believers who are engaging in the fast, the fish in the sea seek forgiveness until they break their fast. Paradise is decorated everyday for the person who fasts; the evil minded Satan is chained; and on the last night of Ramadan, all their sins are forgiven.” (Ahmad)

But What Is Forgiveness?

Read the rest of this entry