Meanings of the word ‘FITNAH’ in the Qur’aan and Sunnah
Source: Muslim Ummah Awakeners
Praise be to Allaah.
■_Al-Azhari said: “The Arabic word fitnah includes meanings of testing and trial. The root is taken from the phrase fatantu al-fiddah wa’l-dhahab (I assayed (tested the quality of) the silver and gold), meaning I melted the metals to separate the bad from the good.
Similarly, Allaah says in the Qur’aan (interpretation of the meaning): ‘(It will be) a Day when they will be tried [yuftanoona] (punished, i.e. burnt) over the Fire!’ [al-Dhaariyaat 51:13], meaning, burning them with fire.” (Tahdheeb al-Lughah, 14/196).
■_Ibn al-A’raabi summed up the meanings of fitnah when he said: “Fitnah means testing, fitnah means trial, fitnah means wealth, fitnah means children, fitnah means kufr, fitnah means differences of opinion among people, fitnah means burning with fire.”
(Lisaan al-‘Arab by Ibn Manzoor).
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➡1_Testing and trial
“Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: ‘We believe, and will not be tested [la yuftanoon]” [al-‘Ankaboot 29:2]
i.e., that they will not be subjected to trial, as Ibn Jareer said.
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➡2_ Blocking the way and turning people away,
“but beware of them lest they turn you [yaftinooka] (O Muhammad) far away from some of that which Allaah has sent down to you” [al-Maa’idah 5:49]
Al-Qurtubi said: this means blocking your way and turning you away.
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“Then, verily, your Lord for those who emigrated after they had been put to trials [futinoo] and thereafter strove hard and fought (for the Cause of Allaah) and were patient, verily, your Lord afterward is, Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful” [al-Nahl 16:110]
Put to trial means persecuted.
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➡4_Shirk and kufr,
“And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allaah)” [al-Baqarah 2:193]
Ibn Katheer said: this means shirk (worshipping others besides Allaah).
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➡5_Falling into sin and hypocrisy,
“(The hypocrites) will call the believers: “Were we not with you?” The believers will reply: “Yes! But you led yourselves into temptations [fatantum anfusakum], you looked forward for our destruction; you doubted (in Faith) and you were deceived by false desires” [al-Hadeed 57:14]
Al-Baghawi said: i.e., you made yourselves fall into hypocrisy and you destroyed yourselves by means of sin and whims and desires.
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➡6_Confusing truth with falsehood
“And those who disbelieve are allies of one another, (and) if you (Muslims of the whole world collectively) do not do so [i.e. become allies, as one united block under one Khaleefah (a chief Muslim ruler for the whole Muslim world) to make victorious Allaah’s religion of Islamic Monotheism], there will be Fitnah (wars, battles, polytheism) and oppression on the earth, and a great mischief and corruption (appearance of polytheism)”[al-Anfaal 6:73]
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“And whomsoever Allaah wants to put in Al‑Fitnah (error, because of his rejecting of Faith), you can do nothing for him against Allaah” [al-Maa’idah 5:41]
The meaning of fitnah here is misguidance. Al-Bahr al-Muheet by Abu Hayaan, 4/262.
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➡8_ Killing and taking prisoners,
“if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial [yaftinakum] (attack you)”
This refers to the kaafirs attacking the Muslims whilst they are praying and prostrating, in order to kill them or take them prisoner, as stated by Ibn Jareer.
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➡9_Difference among people and lack of agreement,
“and they would have hurried about in your midst (spreading corruption) and sowing sedition among you [yabghoonakum al-fitnah]” [al-Tawbah 9:47]
i.e., they would have stirred up differences amongst you, as it says in al-Kashshaaf, 2/277.
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“Which of you is afflicted with madness (maftoon)” [al-Qalam 68:6] Here it means madness.
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➡11_Burning with fire
“Verily, those who put into trial [fatanoo] the believing men and believing women (by torturing them and burning them)”[al-Burooj 85:10]
Ibn Hajar said: the meaning may be understood from the context. (al-Fath 11/176)
Posted on September 22, 2014, in ARTICLES and tagged blocking the way, burning with fire, confusing, difference, Education, falling into sin, falsehood, fitnah, fitnah meaning, Hypocrisy, insanity, islam, islamic article, killing, knowledge, lack of agreement, learn, meaning, meaning fitnah, meaning of fitnah, misguidance, muslim ummah awakeners, People, persecution, quran, shirk and kufr, taking prisoners, testing, testing and trial, trial, truth, turning people away, word. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.